Milking as practiced in farms without devices ensuring hygienic measures in the highlands of Mulume-Munene in South Kivu drew our attention to study the hygienic quality of milk according to milking mode. Hand milking in most cases in an open kraal or barn is prone to many risks of microbial contamination. The results show that despite the existence of total coliforms, faecal coliforms, staphylococci and streptococci below the average threshold in gross value, especially less than 1x106 and 1x102 / CFU, there is no tuberculosis bacillus. Note that this milk is directly consumed fresh or marketed after processing into curd, That is "Mashanza".
The causes of animal organ seizures at the Ruzizi II public slaughterhouse (ELEKAT) and their biological consequences are a major global concern (veterinary-biological-financial-social), which attracts the attention of more than one researcher and for which a record of considerable losses of meat, but also silver remains unknown until now. This in fact led us to carry out a retrospective study over a period between 2013 and 2015.
To this end, our working methodology was based on the survey carried out at the public abattoir Ruzizi II of Bukavu, commonly known as Elekat (Katanga Breeding) during the aforementioned period.
The results obtained are as follows:
- 20 different causes of meat seizure were inventoried, most of which are diseases. Among these causes, Distomatosis (or Fasciolosis) is dominant.
- The actual beef losses amount to 6256 Kg for the period of study from 2013 to 2015. The Liver is the most seized organ, of the order of 4388 Kg for 4 reasons including Distomatose, Echinococcosis, Cysticercosis and Hepatic Abscesses.
- Heart and Spleen have small weights in meat seizures of 0.5 kg each, and for a single cause (Pericarditis for the Heart and Abscess for Spleen)
- Purchase of meat inspected by the veterinary service
- Sensitization of butchers on the cleanliness of their equipment, including clothing, in order to avoid contamination of the meat.
- The continuation of the study in the other slaughterhouses and killings of the city and which, moreover, are more archaic, for the progress of science and veterinary public health.
- A mini laboratory is essential to the slaughterhouse to improve the detection of seizures and to count down the epidemiological situation of the provenance areas, as the region is part of the overall context of the Great Lakes subregion ( CPEGL).
The weight and numeral productivity of traditional and half-stabulation livestock in the Ruzizi plain is threatened by a permanent state of endemic diseases and epizootics, among which foot-and-mouth disease inflicts morbidity and mortality on cattle herds in the communities of this entity. In view of the scattered efforts in finding solutions through a vaccination program, the study conducted consists of a synthesis of the complexity of a treatment of this viral epizootic or treatment mainly symptomatic, drastic and advanced comes to the rescue up to 100% danger for both calves and adult cattle in the area around the pilot farm based in Bwegera. While the action may seem costly, however to the uncertain preventive vaccine solution and the eradication measures not in sight, we contributed by this contribution of lesser evil.
Tackling the different problems faced by breeders of cattle in Mbinga-Southern area and promotes a sense of local communities for a self-management towards sustainable development in pastoral terms is key to make a selection of a productive system.
The goal is to improve the quality of livestock and its considerable production performance and at the same time, the concern that each breeder in Kalehe Territory, particularly those of South Mbinga turn their eyes on the application of new methods livestock for their high production.
The average number of cattle raised in the household is 6 cows, but farmers are exposed to enormous difficulties such lack of spawners, improved breeds, lack or under information regarding proper livestock grazing are low quality and insufficient, and no momentum is established by the state to help farmers.
It returns a load their self-management for the promotion of pastoral sector by the selection and purchase of broodstock improved breeds, for quality food systems, controlled reproduction and regular care for cattle in an intensive system stabling abandoning the As the extensive system which is the practice in which most breeders operate.
This study assessing the adoption of three varieties of rice altitude marshes come from the Agricultural Research Center / RUBONA of Rwanda to the soil and climatic conditions of eastern DR Congo, specifically NSRF / Lwiro in Kabare territory in South Kivu.
Furthermore, we observed that the rooting of these four varieties length corresponded to that determined by several authors, the longest being that of the control variety (Vo46) followed by the variety FACAGRO 56. This confirmed that soil of eastern DRC is of good structure and texture and is well ventilated; which facilitates root development and mineral nutrition.
Variety FACAGRO 908 is placed in first position with respect to the number of productive tillers. This depends on factors like good spacing, early weeding, soil fertility and favorable genetic heritage.
As regards the weight of 1000 grains, and Vo46 varieties WAT 1276-22-2 were considered good productivity as giving a higher weight of grain (32g).
This difference in weight is due to the size of the seeds of these varieties with respect to others.
Irrigated rice is the system that gives the greatest return with 4-8 t / ha of paddy, the results of these tests have shown that all tested varieties are profitable with the head of the ranking, the Vo46 variety. The variety Vo46 had produced 7,26t / ha followed by the variety FACAGRO 908 with 5,567t / ha then comes WAT1276-22-2 with 5,133t / ha and 56 FACAGRO with 5,033t / ha.
Managing the post-weaning period in children-farm in North Kivu is a problem that requires the use of local products of agriculture. A composite flour made from corn, sweet potato, pumpkin and soy has been proposed to substitute breast milk. Three treatments were then developed with each clean overalls him. The physico-chemical analyzes and the organoleptic characteristics tests were then performed on the three treatments at the end of which the following results were obtained: - Treatment III, containing 30% corn, 40% of sweet potato, squash 10% and 20% soy, was found to be the combination that offers many advantages over other light of its wealth protein, minerals and vitamins; - The composite flour obtained has remarkable physicochemical properties. Low humidity for proper preservation, a protein capable of covering in small quantities the protein needs of children under one year, an acceptable percentage of fat needed to provide essential lipids in the body without so ask digestion or diarrhea problems. The only drawback it has is that it contains few minerals and vitamins. - When compared to breast milk and formulations already developed in the North, the composite flour obtained is illustrated with a high protein content (16%), low humidity and a share of acceptable fat. It also has weaknesses as regards mineral salts and vitamins. - The organoleptic characteristics of this flour have been very interesting with an average rating of "very good" from every point of view whether the aroma, the taste and color.
The environment in the country is threatened particularity in Sud-Kivu in different aspects and one of them which must be taken with care is the pollution made by plastics. Over their presence in dumps, there plastic rubish are found everywhere in roads, streets, avenues even in roads which lead to villages. In addition, these rubbish are being found in the fields and pastures. After having observed most of beasts with the presence of strange plastics, an hypothesis given by some farmers is that there were plastics covered with oil and salt according to their opinion. Surely, scientifically we wondered if humanly speaking that is possible whereas these farmers provide cows to butchery. There farmers make their cows swallow plastic materials in order to bring them elsewhere to be bred. This study was done in order to comprehend exactly what is taking place and the consequences of plastic rubbish and ingested clothes. With the sample of 1270 beasts slaughtered in the four slaughterhouses, we got 179 beasts having strange elements : 13,4% at Mugogo, 12,1% at Mudaka, 14,7% at Beach Muhanzi and 22,5% specialy for little ruminant at Beach Muhanzi/ Kachoma. During the research of diagnosis protocol on an animal living emaciated, the reductions approved of ruminating constitute presumptive elements in our area deeply polluted. The scarcity of farming lands and the one of forage (lack of integral agriculture) situation which render beast to be vulnerable on pica (sickness of flesh). From there primary results, 24 beasts were diagnosed and confirmed after "laparotomie" in investigation followed by a "rumenotomie". A experiment of healing by administrating beer "coca-cola" in its selling states destined in human beverage does not give any result as it is the case of "emollients" and "laxactifs". This drink doesn't affect these plastic rubbish in vitro conditions of dose in the mixture of a rumenal sac and coca-cola diluted rate of 50%.
Causes of mortalities observed in caviaculture are badly known even ignored by breeders in Sud-Kivu precisely in Walungu area. Thus, we contemplated to have a study in order to characterize ectoparasitosis in this breeding by emphasizing on their symptoms, the identification cutanous scratching and harvest of crust and hair of guinea-pig submitted on the laboratory analysis, suggesting some recommendation especial hygienic adapted to the small breeders in the peasant area by taking into account a test of heal with palmist oil associated with kerosene. All that in order to manage the risks of infestations which can harmer even human beings, because these sicknesses are wellknown as zoonoses. Our study was applieds in this center of Walungu area where we have first isolated the sick guinea-pig on which we took away cutanous scratching product and hair on animal met and having symptoms of scabies wiich guinea-pigs constitute the fist pattern. The second lot constitutes the hair harvested on guinea-pigs in the pilot farm, in order to characterize ectoparasites by identifying in laboratory where we have put our emphasis of ectoparasits Sarcoptes scabei and Demodex sp type but as well their frequency which vary according to different farm, ages and sex. Notice that the breeding system which remains traditional is at the origin of dissemination of these ectopasasits mainly if some hygienic rules are not respected. They are the purchasing in the market or in the farms infested, the donation followed by sudden introduction of guinea-pigs in inhurt breeding without quarantine at fist and lack of heal application of these parasits which attack human being. The sanitary care taken for in a mix of 70% of oil and 30% of kerosene renew heath of beasts.
A retrospective study on the reasons of seizures of organs of animals done at the public slaughterhouse of Blessed has been led on one period of five years since 2007 till 2011. To shortcoming an analysis of its results we look for results to seizures meats characteristics whose energetic value should have suved the cellular metabolism, it has been noted a number very important of carcasses on which have been achieved of the partial seizures. A total of 3077 cases that corresponded to 2835,75 kg of meat seizure have been observed during the study; cattle covered the biggest proportions. The losses in animal proteins were therefore real. Being about the spoil types, fifteen motives constituted the reason of seizure of one or the other of the organs on the whole in the species bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine. The bad bled, the distomatose, the pulmonary emphysema, the cysticercose, the caseification, the abscesses, the adhesions, the dotted liver, the tuberculose, the blow up spleen, the angiocholite, the kidney stones, the hydronephrose, the metastrongylose and the verminous nodules. Among the four studied species, the bovine was the most interesting for which one noted 2197 cases, either 71,4%, in case of pig, 722 cases (23,46%). Among the small ruminants, the goat covered 3,37% and sheep only achieved 1,75%. According spoil frequencies, there are no differences statically. Considering the category of meats seized, it is useful to signal that most came from the red viscera. In a general manner, the yearly averages were respectively of 29,4cas and 47,5Kg, numbers that are spectacular enough on time where the needs in meat are increasing.