Study of diameter structure of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub species has been undertaken in Yoko Forest Reserve and Biaro Forest into two permanent dispositive of 400 ha each one. This work has objectives based on density distribution by diameter class and pedological parameters in the two selected sites. All stems of dbh ≥ 10 cm of the studied species have been inventoried, measured through 40 bands of 10 ha each one and soil samples were also collected in the two sites. 1051 trees were indexed with 663 inventoried in Biaro forest. This one present a good reconstitution of stems species for having many individuals into inferior diameters classes. The results of the pedological analyses showed that the two sites have an acid soil.
This study conducted as part of the reforestation mechanism aimed to determine deforestation engines and social and environmental impacts in the vicinity of the city of Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo, while proposing solution strategies. The method of purposive sampling surveys and participatory research method action (PRMA) and the documentary method were applied to the data collection. The ranking technique in the focus group, observation and interviewing techniques have helped us get the required information in this fact. For data analysis, we used the Excel program to statistical inference for other quantitative analyzes. In this investigation, we selected the following : - Population growth and deforestation resulting impact on the activities and available resources ; - Each village has its realities on alternative activities, but the burning up system of field in agriculture remains the peasant activity and the main driver of deforestation in the hinterland of the city of Kisangani. Perceptions of different problems from one area to another; - Options (strategies) for the development should be developed in a participatory manner. The framing of the farmers in other income generating activities like breeding, small trade, etc., according to the site but also on the agricultural techniques with reduced environmental impact such as the rotation of crops with leguminous plants, the use of the improved varieties and the agro-forestry would permit to decrease the human pressure on the environment.
The present study is based on the structural analysis of the diameters of the three species: Musanga cecropioides R.BR, (Parasolier), Prioria balsamifera (Vermoesen) Breteler (Tola) and Prioria oxyphylla (Harms) Breteler (Tchitola) Illegal settlements by people living on the Yoko Forest Reserve. P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla do not have a good regeneration, M. secropioides to a trend towards a good generation but does not have individuals from class 9. The results show that M. cecropioides is declared non-vulnerable (94.5%) in Yoko while P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla are said to be vulnerable. This is explained by the low vulnerability index obtained for these two species, ie 30.9% and 26.7%.
The present study was carried out from 346 skulls of Praomys jacksoni (Muridae) captured in some forest areas of the surroundings of Kisangani city (island, right and left banks of Congo River) from 1994 to 1999). The results obtained from twenty-five skulls measurements revealed the diversity existing inside each population studied. The sexual dimorphism is favorable to males for seven measurements (GRLE, HEBA, DIA1, DIA2, INT, LNAS, and LOTE) whereas eighteen remain stable. The skulls of insular populations (Tundulu and Mbiye) are bigger than those of the forest reserves ( Masako and Yoko) for twenty measurements: GRLE, PRCO, HEBA, HEPA, DIA1, DIA2, INT, ZYPL, PAL, UPTE, UPDE, M1, BNAS, LNAS, BUL, DIN, HRZ, ROH, ROB and PCPA The skulls of Mbiye island populations are bigger than those of Tundulu island for eighteen measurements (GRLE, PRCO, HEBA, HEPA, PAF, DIA1, DIA2, ZYG, UPTE, UPDE, M1, ZYPL, BNAS, LNAS, LOTE, CHOA, DIN, PCPA). The skulls of populations from the left bank (Yoko forest reserve) are bigger than those of the right bank for six measures (GRLE, HEBA, DIA1, INT, CHOA and PAF). These results indicate that craniometrical measurements of the adult animals are stable and constitute a complementary means for identifying the species in the Praomys genus. The variations observed with certain examined characters would be the consequence of the biological phenomenon of speciation. It is thus desirable that molecular studies are carried out on these muridae in order to validate this hypothesis.
A floristic inventory of grass and undergrowth was carried out in the southern block of the Yoko Forest Reserve in the Eastern Province. This study aimed to identify grasses and undergrowth, and evaluate the wealth of this areal florula. Transect methods and phytosociological survey was the approach used. A total of 116 plant species have been inventoried and are belonging to 92 genera and 44 families. Note that the dominant families and features are: Commelinaceae (7.76%) and Rubiaceae (6.90%). The relative densities of species and the highest are those of family Marantochloa congensis (174.0 feet/ha) and Marantaceae (360.0 feet/ha). The relative frequencies of the most observed species are those of Palisota barteri (3.21%) and Cola congolana (3.39%), while those of family are Arecaceae, Commelinaceae, Connaraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lomariopsidaceae, Malvaceae, Marantaceae and Menispermaceae (6.25%). Simpson's diversity index (0.957), Shannon’s diversity index (3.619) and equitability (0.798) revealed that this florula is diversified and its species are well distributed. It is thus desirable that this study is extended to other forest reserves and forest groupings of Kisangani city and its surroundings in order to establish a better database necessary for the sustainable management of the classified forests and other sites of high value for the conservation.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei in the Botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, University of Kisangani/DR Congo. 1.439 individuals were listed and gathered in various classes of size, diameter of stem and distribution around the carrying foot. 33 years after the establishment of this botanical garden, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei was transformed into a forest species. Indeed, it found ecological conditions similar to those of its medium of origin and which favor its optimal ex situ development. The individuals having the size ≤ 50 cm, are the most represented with 1055 individuals (73,3%) and numbers it individuals having a diameter ≤ 10 cm are higher with 1358 individuals (94,3%). The data on the carrying foot showed a good regeneration of the species. The number of individuals falls when classes progress in the ascending order. It is thus desirable that studies are regularly carried out on the species headlights of the botanical garden for a permanent follow-up of the evolution of their florula.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo alone possess about 181 species of ophidians belonging to 59 genera and 7 families. Kisangani city and surrounding area are a "hot spot" of several zoological groups already studied; while the biology and ecology of ophidians remain unknown in this ecoregion. From the perspective of dominance we got 0.1136 for all species with a high value in the species Boaedon olivaceus followed by the species such as Dipsadoboa viridis and Hapsidophrys lineatus while other remaining species: Atractaspis irregularis, Causus sp, Grayia ornata, Boulengerina annulata, Telothornis kirtlandii, Bitis nasicornis and Naja melanoleuca are less represented in our sample. The representativeness in the total number of individuals collected, the taxa, genera and families were respectively 25; 14; 13 and 4. The family of Colubridae is best represented with 65% of species followed by the family of Viperidae and Elapidae each respectively with 14% of species while that the family of Atractaspididae is less represented 7% of species. The Simpson index gives us 0.8864; the probability that two individuals from the sample are randomly of different species; Shannon Wiener index is 3.4831, which stipulates that the drill Basukwambula is very diversified in species; the equitability value is 0.2328. This index shows a statistically insignificant value; because some species of Ophidians captured in Basukwambula forest are represented by only one specimen in our collection.
The study of the plants hosts of the edible caterpillars of medicinal use used in the treatment of the diseases in the sector of Bakumu-Mangongo led to the inventory list of 18 species belonging to 12 different families to Fabaceae prevalence. These plants generally come from the forests secondary (12 species) and dominated especially by the trees (17 species), the phanerophytes in particular the mesophanerophytes (11espèces), the sarcochores (14 species) and with distribution Guineo-congolese (16 species) among which 9 species are Omni-guineo-congolese. The drugs are often prepared by decoction or aqueous maceration at basis of the fresh leaves, the roots, the barks of stem or trunk, the bark of root, latexes and are managed by oral route, anal way and bath of the body. Accessibility to the edible caterpillars and the plant species of medicinal value are the positive assets of these resources for the populations. On the other hand, the no-ecological exploitation of these resources could lead to deforestation, disappearance if not rarefaction of the biocenoses and the disturbance of the ecosystems.
The study is a contribution to the knowledge of Rodents and Shrews diversity in Yasikia forest, located at 31 Km from Kisangani, on the road towards Opala. On transects, Rodents and Shrews were sampled using the protocol with [xPF, ySH]. A total of 13 sampling lines were observed during 15 days (from March 26 to 11 April 2015). As results, we collected 74 shrews, belonging to two genera at least 9 species; 68 rodents which represent 9 genera and 12 species. In total, we collected 145 small mammals, with a trapping effort of 6478 trap-nights. The specific biodiversity and trappingsuccess showed that Pitfall traps are the most efficient to capture Shrews. It also catches small Rodents and adult such as N.cf.grata, and other adults’ rodents as Praomys genera, but with reduced number. Sherman traps are more effective to catch Rodents. They also catch shrews in reduced number. The trappings were conducted in three habitats. In the primary forest G. dewevrei (EC = 1060 night-traps, 50 specimens, 14 species, and TS = 4.72%), mixed primary forest (EC = 1500 night-traps, 69 specimens, 15 species, and TS = 4.6%) and fallow land (EC = 440 night-traps, 23 specimens, 9 species, and TS = 5.23%). No new species was announced but rather the presence of three endemic species of which two (C. Goliath and L. huttereri) are rare.
The purpose of this work lies within the scope of the valorization of traditional food of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the province of Tshopo in particular and aims the inventory and evaluation of the nutritive value of the edible caterpillars of Kisangani city and its surroundings. The determination of moisture, the total lipids, total ashes, total proteins, the total sugars and the energy value was carried out according to usual techniques. 12 species of edible caterpillars were identified and gathered in three families: Attacidae (8 species, 67%), Notodontidae (3 species, 25%) and Nymphalidae (1 species, 8%). The average values of various calculated parameters are: water (60.92%), dry weight (39.08%), ashes (4.20 g), proteins (52.13 g), lipids (19.81%), sugars (1.19 g), and energy (392.33 kCal). The production of edible caterpillars must constitute an objective to be preached through agro-forestry programs for a sustainable management of the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and those of the Tshopo Province in particular.
Democratic Republic of the Congo is among the countries who attach great importance to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this floristic study was to evaluate the plant diversity of the Rubi-télé hunting area for a good sustainable management. This area is located in the Bas Uele province, Territory of Buta and the Community of Monganzulu village Sukisa (N: 02 ° 19 '072 "E: 024 ° 58' 368'; altitude: 471m). This reserve has an area of 9080 km2.
All individuals with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were inventoried and measured 1.30 m above the grade. We opted for a targeted sampling of delineating the 50 m X 50 m plots (mixed forest) and where the Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (mono forest dominant) was abundant. The study conducted in the field hunting Rubi-Télé an area of 2ha led us census 452 individuals in the mixed forest divided into 79 species, 28 families; 267 individuals in the forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei divided into 30 species, 14 families.
Basal area for forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei is 32,3m2/ha and mixed forest as basal area 23m2/ha. Julbernadia seretii is more abundant with a rate of 11.95%, in the mixed forest. Family Fabaceae leads with 30.87%.
For Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest species abounds its habitat, first with 46.44% of the family Fabaceae is leading with 64.12%, it appears that the mixed forest shows the scattering of the forest wealth specific Gilbertiodendron dewevrei because its diversity index values are low.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the nutritional value and cyanhydric acid content of eight plant species (Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Cola acuminata, Ficus vallis-choudae, Musanga cecropioïdes, Macaranga spinosa, Pycnanthus angolensis and Trilepisium madagascariensis) currently consumed by Okapia johnstoni in captivity at Epulu Fauna Reserve of Okapi in Democratic Republic of Congo. After two weeks of experimentation, the preference of Okapia johnstoni in consuming these plant species is in decreasing order as follow: Musanga cecropioïdes, Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Ficus vallis-choudae, Pycnanthus angolensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Macaranga spinosa and Cola acuminata. The biochemical analyses revealed that A. Boonei and C. acuminata are more rich in crude protein( 19.27% per 100 g of dry mater) and F. vallis-choudae is the richest species in the lipids (11.61%) and the poorest is A. cordifolia; M. cecropioïdes is the richest in calcium (6. 01%) against, P. angolensis which is the poorest (3.0 %); In the all plant species, magnesium is presented under the form of the trace; T. madagascariens and A. Boonei are the richest in cyanhydric acid (1, 60 mg) that P. angolensis (0, 40 mg). These results indicate that the selective choice of certain fodder to the detriment of others is a self medicative behaviour (zoopharmacognosy) in Okapi. Starting from these results, it is thus desirable that research works are carried out for the ex situ conservation of Okapi in the province of “Nord Ubangi”.
The study concerns the reproduction and structure of the populations of Sciuridae from the forest reserve of Yoko and has for objectives to identify the dominant species present in this reserve, to determine and to analyze the structure of the populations of squirrels and their reproduction phonology in order to estimate the stability of this group facing the local and global changes. The animals were harvested with the help of traditional traps from May 2014 to April 2015. From the six species captured, Funisciurus anerythrus was the most abundant, followed by the Funisciuruses bayonii, Funisciurus congicus, Paraxerus boehmi, Heliosciurus rufobrachium and Protoxerus stangeri. Their activities seem to achieve themselves in the fallows except the last two species that prefer the primary forest. The reproductive activities increase toward the middle of the rainy season (September-November) with a great proportion of the gravid females from December to February, which accompanies of a massive entry of the young during the active period from June to November. The sex-ratio is in favor of the males but the difference is not significative (p>0.05). The middle range is of two for Funisciurus anerythrus, and one for the other. The adults are abundant; the continuous presence of the young adult and juvenile reveals a continuous reproduction and the stability of the population.
This study wore on the diversity and distribution of ophidians in a few protected areas in the Oriental Province (DR. Congo). The harvest data were performed at Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2), in the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and in the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The collections come from the missions of Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2), the Yoko Forest Reserve (FRY) and Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The Ophidians specimens were captured in actively prospecting night with a snake cane; some specimens of Ophidians were purchased from villagers. In total 91 biopsies were taken from the specimens examined belonging to 7 families 25 genera and 28 species. Using a unique method of catching sight in the three protected areas we find that the dominant species was the horned viper Bitis nasicornis (12.09%), followed by the species Boaedon olivaceus (10.99%) while Grayia smithii, Lycophidion laterale, Dendroaspis jamesoni, Causus maculatus, Natriciteres olivacea, Dasypeltis fasciata, Thrasops jacksonii, Rhamnophis aethiopissa, Thelotornis kirtlandii, Toxicodryas pulverulenta et Hapsidophrys lineatus were less represented with 1.10% for each of them. The index of Shannon - Weiner (H) show that the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) (H = 3,898) present a higher diversity of Ophidians than that other protected areas. The Simpson index was 0.81 for Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba park (TL2), 0.918 for Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and 0.907 for the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The equitability is 0.97; 0.917 and 0.944 respectively for the Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2) for the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The Species richness (RS) is 19 for the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY), 15 for Rubitele hunting area (RBTL) and 6 for Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2).
The Mbiye Island is a forest reserve managed by the University of Kisangani. It is currently undergoing an unprecedented anthropization related to the manufacture of charcoal. This practice leads to forest loss peril. This study has the following specific objectives: To assess the impact of charring on the ecosystems of the island Mbiye. Assess profitability or profits from charring wood in the household coal. To collect data, a sample of 40 peoples was drawn from randomized in five villages of the island Mbiye. These villages are: Akoka, Kolema, lilo, Makululu and Mongaliema. Respondents were questioned individually on the basis of a survey sheet. It observes five major activities that carbonization ranks first (50%). The Mongaliema town ranks first in the production of wood or 23.7 %, followed Makululu with 22.2%, with 20.7% Akoko and finally Kolema,Lilo have a low percentage (14.8% and 18, 5% respectively). The most used in the manufacture of charcoal from trees bordering the forest reserve of the island are: Gilbertiodendron dewevrei 95%, Cynometras essili and Irvingia gabonensis 75% and finally Fagara macrophylla and Xylopia aethiopica 45%. Revenues or 62.5% from the carbonization for coal are affected more in the education of children and health care. The dependence of the latter charcoal depends on deforestation and degradation of forest ecosystems of the planet in general and the forest reserve of the island especially Mbiye. Following these questions, we issued the assumptions that the deforestation, depletion of forest species used in the production of charcoal, degradation of forest ecosystems and climate change would be the major impacts of this activity.
The present work carried out in Masako forest reserve, updates the data on regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei through its youthful (1 ≤ dbh < 10 cm). To carry out our study, twelve 50 m × 50 m plots were established on a 2100 m transect in G. dewevrei based mono-dominant forest. The aim in view was to see how is held the regeneration of this last through its youthful in the Masako forest reserve. We hypothesized that the youthful ones would develop under canopée in a uniform way in all the pieces. To this end, 1652 individuals grouped in five diameter classes : class 1 with 1364 individuals (83%), followed by class 2 with 241 individuals (15%), class 3 with 34 individuals (2%), class 4 with 9 individuals (1%) and then class 5 with 4 individuals (0.2%). This result shows that regeneration of G. dewevrei at youthful stage is not uniform, according to their heterogeneous distribution (Coefficient of variation: 63.5%). Individuals in classes 4 and 5 are less represented because they are exploited much by the local community for the building work.
This work aims to characterize the structure and diversity of the heterogeneous population of Yoko Forest Reserve. First, we considered (i) the floristic variability (specific richness and diversity), and (ii) the structural variability (in terms of density, ground surface and diametric structure) evaluated at the scale of a hectare. The second step consisted on the analysis of the spatial structure (i) generally and its comparison to the whole plot, and (ii) specific structure of the whole plot (only the spatial structure of the important species was analyzed). So, a systematic inventory of all trees of 10 cm dbh was conducted over five hectares. It should be also noted that the position of each foot has been taken according to the coordinate system (x, y). In total, 1,919 trees of 10 cm dbh were inventoried in five hectares. These individuals were distributed into 98 genera, 141 species and 31 families; with average density of 19.6 genera per hectare, 28.2 species per hectare, and 6.2 families per hectare. The resemblance or similarity degree among the plots (Hectares) showed clearly two coherent plant communities, with a low coefficient of similarity, and each consisting of more or less close plots. Although the density is dominated by Microdesmis yafungana species J. Léonard J. but Pericopsis elata Harms species and Fabaceae family dominated other quantitative parameters. As for the structural analysis, the individuals presented a shape with a significant decrease as we moved to the next class and the most significant densities were observed in classes of diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4. Therefore, a study on the structure and diversity of heterogeneous forest populations is very important because it gives information about the natural processes of trees (growth, regeneration, demographics) as well the anthropogenic action on the forest ecosystem.