The objective of this research was to quantify and identify pathogenic bacteria in the wastewater of Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River, downstream of wild dumps. Bacteria samples were taken using the 250 ml sterile plastic vials. Indeed, the whole forearm is immersed in water with the vial, open at a depth of 25 to 30 cm and it is hermetically sealed inside the water itself. The samples were transported at low temperatures in a cooler containing ice blocks to the laboratory for possible analysis. Microbiological analyses were done at the LPVMA/UOB. To arrive at a possible count of the number of colonies of bacteria, the process of the dilution technique of the samples because it allows us to reduce the bacterial flora in a sample. For each site, we inoculated on three Petri dishes according to the number of dilutions (from 100 to 10-3). All Petri dishes are incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The number of colonies was found on the surface of all three plates averaged and expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) per ml of water. Plating on the specific media was done in test tubes using a platinum loop. The results of our analyses showed that the max/min shift of the values of variables of the physicochemical parameters according to the sampling sites did not exceed the interval of one unit: salinity (0.06-0.5), temperature (24.25-25.4°C), pH (8.5-9), dissolved O2 (57.2 - 59.8 mg/L.10-1). Regarding to the variation of CFU on the different culture media used, the analyses revealed us that the number of colonies varies according to the type of culture media, which constitutes a danger of the community health of the urban population. The studies on these bacteria resistance according to the most commonly used antibiotics are capital for a better support to the public health. It is on PCA and PA where we found the most colonies than on ECA where the CFUs are the lowest. Asignificant difference was observed between the CFU detected inthe waters of Mushununu and those detected in the waters of the Ruzizi I dam (p = 0.005), those detected in the waters from Hewa Bora and those from ELAKAT (p = 0.03) and those from Honga and ELAKAT (p = 0.041). A spatial distribution of detected genera of potentially pathogenic bacteria; including Salmonella sp, Escherichia sp, Sphingomonas sp, Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Moraxella sp, Vibrio sp, Citrobacter sp, Enterobacter sp, and Serratia sp was observed.
Introduction: The rapid diuretic furosemide is the temporary loop that is used in the states of edema associated so far in the liver, kidney and heart especially by oral and intravenous routes of administration but its quality control remains a problem in the administration of this drug in the DR Congo.
Method: A cross sectional study was performed on three brands of furosemide 40mg sold in pharmacies Gerva Foundation More and Biosadec of Bukavu in the South Kivu Province. A sample of 60 tablets in the newly approved three pharmacies or 20 tablets per drug were dissolved in water as a solvent and analyzed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 nm to determine the concentrations of active ingredients. The Anova test at significance level 0.5 and linear regression using the Past version1.9.1 and Excel 2010 were used to compare quantitative variables.
Result: Three brands of furosemide (New cesamex Techno economic services Frusina) Frusina shows slightly high test percentage of 99.6% and the two other marks techno economic services and New cesamex show respectively a percentage of the testing of 98 , 75%. A non-significant difference was observed between the three brands p> 0.05 with R2 = 0.99.
Introduction: The mining exploitation always affected the immediate environment and the socio-sanitary life by the nature of the rock exploited and the use of the chemical products at the time of the treatment of gold. The objective of this survey was to clear the perceptions of the orpailleurs and non orpailleurs on the environmental and socio-sanitary effects of this exploitation.
Methode: A transverse survey has been achieved in the mining City of Kamituga in Province of the South-Kivu. A questionnaire has been distributed to a sample of orpailleurs and present non orpailleurs at the time of the investigation. Then a documentary withdrawal has been achieved in five sanitary structures of Kamituga to determine the illnesses met at the orpailleurs during five years.
Results: A total of 220 investigated of which 153 orpailleurs and 67 non orpailleurs had taken part to this survey, 26% of the children of less than 17 years were minor. The most quoted illness is the silicosis to 30%, then the intestinal parasitoses to 27%, the malnutrition à18%, the cough and the tuberculosis to 10%, the HIV to 8%. The relocation of the institutions and sacred sites were discerned by 22,7% to 36,6% of them investigated. The degree of the association of perception of the effects of this exploitation was associated meaningfully between the ‘function’ orpailleur and the masculine sex (p=0,006) ; the use of mercury, of cyanide and the generation of the acidic mining drainage (DMA) and their threat for the environment according to the majority of the orpailleurs (p?0,05), the level of the knowledge of the effects and the function orpailleurs and non orpailleurs (p < 0,05 and p < 0,01), the use of the protective materials and the knowledge so many the orpailleurs and non orpailleurs (p < 0,01).
Conclusion: This survey had permitted to note that the environmental effects and sanitary socio resulting from the mining exploitation of gold in Kamituga were known meaningfully so much by the population that by the orpailleurs. These effects result from the dismissal of mercury and cyanide in the environment, of the deficit on average of use of the protective materials, of the relocation of the institutions and the sacred sites.
This research undertaken in the town of Bukavu in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (RDC) tries to include/understand the motivations of the choice of the high-risk sites by the households and analizes the social, environmental and medical problems of the households living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu as well as the solutions under consideration by the latter. To collect the data, of the investigations by questionnaire near 390 households were realized. Software SPSS version 18.0 and analyzes it of contents were used to analyze the data. The results show the choice of the high-risk sites by the households on the high-risk sites is explained by the crisis of housing in the town of Bukavu, related on the deficiency of space face a demographic explosion, the growth the rural migration and on the exorbitant land price and the permissiveness of the administration. The populations living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu test serious problems of which the risk of slip of the grounds, the risk of the crumblings of the grounds, the risk of the floods, the risk of the accidents in the home, the risk of the falls, the risk of the depression of the grounds, the risk of the shocks. It is also observed on the high-risk sites with Bukavu, a high frequency of pathologies of which paludism, influenza, the typhoid fever, diarrheal diseases and respiratory diseases. These problems are due to the expansion of illegal human establishments where almost all the social, environmental and medical conditions are not met. It appears clearly that the majority of the solutions under consideration by the households living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu are not effective.
This study makes it possible to contribute to the comprehension of the management of domestic waste and especially waste plastic in the commune of Ibanda. Analysis of the data, it arises that the households of the Commune of Ibanda have a bad practice on the modes of management of the plastic sachets because some throw them in main street of the commune, others without Trier nor to recycle them, throw them in the lake Kivu, the Kawa river or the Ruzizi river. Indeed, due to the practice of not controlled wild discharges, waste is currently carted towards Lake Kivu, and this phenomenon contributes to increase the imbalance of this ecosystem. In this Commune, the day laborers production of waste by the population is on average of 0,96kg/j. Vis-a-vis the impacts of these risks, the commune of Ibanda, must put public dustbins in the principal arteries of the commune at least 200 with 500m separating them.
This study was led in order to evaluate the health risks related to water, hygiene and cleansing in the two surfaces of health of kalehe in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (RDC).Several factors make difficult the control of the management of the urban cleansing and the access to drinking water. Within the framework of this study, investigations spares and of observation were realized to evaluate the impact of basic hygiene and the supply drinking water. It arises that the problem of the availability of drinking water in the two surfaces of continuous health selected to be a major concern for the population. Domestic waste is badly managed with causes of the absence of infrastructures of hygiene and basic cleansing, a lack of synergy of action of the actors. Concerning the other conveniences of the habitat, approximately 54, 8 % of the households do not have latrines with presence of the excrements in the court (69, 9 %). For the evacuation of the household refuse (56, 2%) throw them in the rivers what degrades the environment in these two surfaces of health of the zone of health of kalehe. A sensitizing of the population in the management of domestic waste to avoid the diseases due to the bad management of waste and the good management of water is recommended. The persistence of such practices is likely to increase the environmental and medical problems.