In the region where Banana tree Bacterial Wilt Disease has decimated banana tree plantations after many years, peasants who have only this culture as source of income co-op do not know what to do in order to cope with this continuing plague which lasts for more than a decade. Nevertheless with more or less resistant varieties including the FHIA-25 in the introduction, hope is allowed. However, in the process of planting plantations, regardless of fertilization and which our study has focused on the organic and mineral amendment, nothing can open on an issue to restore the banana fields around the huts in the agglomerated villages. Therefore, soil enrichment based on Tithonia, cow manure and ash is a way out among alternatives allowing farmers to resume the restoration of their banana plantation’s heritage. The results are promising in an endemic zone of banana wilt, sign of devastation, the respect of settlement with organic manure coupled with a versatile fertilizer produced with Tithonia and wooden ash, banana growing rapidly and the vigor of the plants presents an identical aspect to that under the natural conditions, with more performance on soils recognized as being too poor.
Many species of domesticated animals are raised for food. Livestock farming methods have also changed more significantly to produce and satisfy the demand for meat. In an area where the demographic pressure is exponential, the rural population is engaged in raising pigs, 75.6% of whom are determined to opt for stabling when 22.2% despite the conviction, continue to practice semi-stabling in order to cope with the difficulties of access to feed and quality agricultural waste. Nevertheless, 2.2% resort to caretaking in public places and trails at the time when this breeding system carries animal diseases, 31% of which are African swine fever and which decimates entire herds, 24.4% of verminosis and particularly zoonoses.
In all the cases, the breeders do not have any standard of premixing yet based on local ingredients in supplementation of the fodder that seems to be the staple food. As a result, work to improve the growth curve of animals in relation to a balanced diet remains poorly known by farmers in rural areas. This can be summed up in three technical, economic and social constraints without which this breeding cannot prosper.
This study was carried out at the Bukavu central slaughterhouse known as the Ruzizi II / ELEKAT public slaughterhouse. The aim was to evaluate the slaughtering performance of slaughtered cattle within this slaughterhouse, not only taking into account their provenance, but above all by relying on their genotype expressed in the format and system breeding. The zootechnical parameters were determined by the barymmetric method to take the size at the withers or the Ugandan zebu comes first, the oblique length of the trunk of the animal or it is the Rwandan zebu that comes before and the thoracic perimeter of which the bull has a high score, here it is Swiss brown. While the yield components consisted of weighing the animal before slaughter for live weight and after slaughter, the weight of the carcass. The results obtained showed that the genomic expression retains its value whereas the system of breeding plays little. It was found that the average zebu yielded a slaughter yield which was low by 44% followed by the small-size zebu with a yield of 46% at the time when the taurine reached a high yield of order of 49%. Nevertheless, it appears that the hazards of transport and food play on these results.
The causes of animal organ seizures at the Ruzizi II public slaughterhouse (ELEKAT) and their biological consequences are a major global concern (veterinary-biological-financial-social), which attracts the attention of more than one researcher and for which a record of considerable losses of meat, but also silver remains unknown until now. This in fact led us to carry out a retrospective study over a period between 2013 and 2015.
To this end, our working methodology was based on the survey carried out at the public abattoir Ruzizi II of Bukavu, commonly known as Elekat (Katanga Breeding) during the aforementioned period.
The results obtained are as follows:
- 20 different causes of meat seizure were inventoried, most of which are diseases. Among these causes, Distomatosis (or Fasciolosis) is dominant.
- The actual beef losses amount to 6256 Kg for the period of study from 2013 to 2015. The Liver is the most seized organ, of the order of 4388 Kg for 4 reasons including Distomatose, Echinococcosis, Cysticercosis and Hepatic Abscesses.
- Heart and Spleen have small weights in meat seizures of 0.5 kg each, and for a single cause (Pericarditis for the Heart and Abscess for Spleen)
- Purchase of meat inspected by the veterinary service
- Sensitization of butchers on the cleanliness of their equipment, including clothing, in order to avoid contamination of the meat.
- The continuation of the study in the other slaughterhouses and killings of the city and which, moreover, are more archaic, for the progress of science and veterinary public health.
- A mini laboratory is essential to the slaughterhouse to improve the detection of seizures and to count down the epidemiological situation of the provenance areas, as the region is part of the overall context of the Great Lakes subregion ( CPEGL).