This study updates the social picture painted on forestry practices of nomadic herders in the Cameroonian Sahel. It extends the debates in the literature by Petit and Walkins on the pruning in Britain. Drawing on social and public representations, opinions on how to harvest tree foliage appear to be divergent. The skeptics believe that pastoral farming has always had negative effects on nature, unlike the convinced. Based on the documentation concerning the dendrometric measurement data taken in the Sahel and the surveys carried out between 2013-2019 in 17 agrosylvopastoral terroirs on a sample of 510 people aged 30 to over 80 years, the images designed on the pastoral activity are contradictory. If the scientific data from the measurements of the branches to be pruned and those of ethnologists and pastoralists indicate rationality in the practices, this is not always the case for ecologists and foresters for whom these practices affect the plant and therefore contribute to the desertification. From then on, a debate was put on the table at the Earth Summit in 1992 and still fuels the controversy today.
The intrauterine device (IUD) is a contraception method widely used in developing countries because of its effectiveness and low cost. Its insertion is a simple medical procedure, but may present some complications, such as intravesical migration complicated with a lithiasis, which is rare but not negligible. We report here a case of IUD having migrated into the bladder, which has calcified secondarily. The patient is a 48-year-old woman who had consulted for irritative bladder signs for 2 months. The history revealed that the third pregnancy was contracted on the IUD, fitted 18 years ago and left uncontrolled after delivery.The gynecological examination did not objectify the marker tail of IUD. The pelvic ultrasound and the abdomen X-ray without preparation revealed the uterine vacuity and the IUD surrounded by stones on the bladder area. A supplementary scan confirmed it without showing a vesico-uterine fistula. The cystoscopy allowed to remove the IUD after having fragmented the lithiasis by endo-vesical pneumatic lithotripsy with Lithoclast.Imaging methods are critical to make a diagnosis. The admittance in urology is required and the preferred treatment is based on cystoscopy extraction. In order to avoid such complication, it is therefore important to follow the medical instructions for the placement of IUD and to regularly verify its localization.
The ageing of cocoa orchards in south-western Côte d'Ivoire in the early 2000s resulted in the relocation of the pioneer front to the forested west. This influx of population would have modified the landscape structure or the composition of land use classes in the areas where the people settled. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of cocoa production on the dynamics of rural and protected areas in the Biankouma department in western Côte d'Ivoire. To achieve this, four satellite images dating from 2002, 2006, 2013, and 2018 from Landsat sensors were processed. The results showed that over the period 2002 to 2018, the number of cocoa farms installed in the protected area was twice as high as in the rural area. In fact, during this period, the surface of cocoa farms increased by 1232.5% in the protected area compared to 567.9% in the rural area. The increase in cocoa cultivation was entirely to the detriment of natural vegetation (-34.7%) in the rural area, whereas it was detrimental to all the classes (-56.8%) in the protected area. The land-use change map indicates that the conversion of natural vegetation to cocoa is mostly concentrated in the protected areas. Thus, cocoa cultivation has had a greater negative effect on the landscape in the protected area compared to the rural area in the west of Côte d'Ivoire.
Fonio (Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf), considered as a minor cereal contributes to overcome the periods of welding in rural zone. Its culture is made in an abstract way and the increasingly weak outputs requiring the revision of this farming system. The objective of this study is to contribute to the improvement of the productivity of fonio in Côte d'Ivoire. With this intention, in the commune of Korhogo, the effect of three modes of sowing on the growth and the productivity of fonio was evaluated in a device in randomized complete blocks with four (04) repetitions and one (01) factor. The observations related to the phenology, the parameters of growth and the yield. The results showed an output raised on the level of sowing to stolen and a good growth on the level of sowing in seed hole except the height of the seedling. However, it would be interesting for a future study, to evaluate the effect of these three modes of sowing, compound with various mineral and organic manures on the growth and the productivity of fonio. .
Drinking water remains a scarce resource in many African countries. The quality of water comes from wells/river was studied through the global parameters (Temperature, T; Potential of hydrogen, pH; Electrical conductivity, EC; Dissolved oxygen, O2 diss; Total Suspended Solids, TSS; Salinity, NaCl; and ionic species, Xn). The samples were collected during wet season, in four wells and the river of Nzeng-Ayong Dragages district (Libreville, Gabon). Physical parameters (T, pH, EC and O2) were evaluated in situ, using a multi-parameter device (420-SET-G). TSS were determined after the dewatering step of the raw sample in a filtration cell equipped with a 0,45 µm filter membrane, and Salinity, estimated by colorimetric titration. Finally, mineral pollutants such as (Ba2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-) and total iron (Fe2+, Fe3+) were evaluated by spectrophotometry, Hach DR 3900. Results show that, the average pH of wells’ water is close to 6.18±1.32 (acid water) while that pH of water from river is neutral (7.23±0.12). EC and dissolved O2 of wells are respectively 184.20±15.78 μS/cm and 8.93±0.97 mg O2/L whereas in the river the values are 37.98±0.85 μS/cm and 7.57±0.39 mg d’O2/L. The ion analysis shows that the two resources are almost not polluted by chemical species other than Ba2+ and PO43-. Pollution ranging between 4.75±1.71 and 4.33±1.15 mg/L of Ba2+, then between 1.31±1.13 and 2.77±2.07 mg/L of PO43- for wells and river, which the concentration is above of the maximum required (0.7 mg/L of Ba2+ and 2 mg/L of PO43-). The structure of soil and the anthropogenic releases could be explaining this alteration. Finally, household bleach treatment has a benefit effect on the reduction of the pollution, with the exception of TSS and Nitrates. This study will be extended to other sites and supplemented by microbiological tests, in order to map areas at risk.
The water is very important in our life. We use water to prepare the meat; to wash our body; womens intime bath; to drink; ….Water deficiency in Kadutu have several consequences like cholera, typhoid fever, womens infections. Also, girls and womens can be exposed to rape.From this comes our main question, which sociosanitary incidence of the water deficiency of Regideso in the housekeeping of Kadutu ?All the results confirm our hypotheses and lead us to say that the water deficiency in Kadutu have several consequence socio sanitary for the inhabitants.