The study aimed to analyze the market of minimally processing (MP) onions in the country by identifying the available MP onion products in the market, describing and segmenting the potential markets with its purchasing behavior as well as its requirements and its effect to the demand and supply of MP onions. Results revealed that MP onion shallots, yellow and red bulb products were available in the market and were demanded by the food industrial sector. Market segments were the meat processors, snack-food manufacturers, fast-food restaurants and households. Meat processors and fast-food restaurants preferred MP yellow bulb onions. The former used it for the canned and ready-to-eat products while the latter for the quick-serving food such as burgers, pizzas, pasta, and the like. The snack-food manufacturing group utilized MP shallots as raw materials for their product flavorings. They further processed it into onion powder and oil as seasonings for their biscuits and instant noodle products. Market segments with cold storages procured in weekly or monthly while daily for households. Meat processors and fast-food and restaurants required 994mt and 2,500mt of MP yellow bulb onions, respectively while snack-food manufacturing companies need around 2,700mt of MP shallots. Supply of MP yellow bulb onions was short by 95 percent while at present MP shallots supply was just enough. With the growth of the food industrial institutions the demand for MP onion products will continue to soar posing a market potential for the onion industry.
Background: Malaria still remains one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Until date, Resistance to the known fast acting antimalarial drugs, lack of licensed effective malaria vaccine and resistance of vector to insecticides remain a key challenge in eradicating the scourge of this disease. Therefore, there is a dire need for alternative antimalarial therapeutic agents or approaches that will help in preventing further increase of this disease. One alternative antimalarial possibility is the use of probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. as dietary supplements.
Aim: This study aimed at assessing the effects of a probiotic bacterium Pediococcus ethanolidurans on Bal/c mice infected with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei ANKA.
Methods: The probiotic bacterium used in this study was isolated from the Cameroonian Bororo Fulani’s traditionally fermented milk and was identified by sequencing its 16S r RNA gene. The repository activity of Pediococcus ethanoliduran on malaria infection in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated using the method described by Peters (1965) with slight modification. Forty-two healthy young adult balb/c were randomly divided into 7 group of 6 mice each and were orally given 9.108 cfu/ mL, 1.8x109cfu/ mL and 2.7. x109 cfu/ mL of Pediococcus ethanolidurans, 0.1mL of Chloroquine (10 mgkg−1), Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine (30 mg/kg−1) and 0.1mL of vehicle (PBS) for seven and for fourteen days before infection with 0.1 mL of 107 Plasmodium berghei parasite. Parasitemia, parasitemia percentage suppression, body weight loss, body temperature, survival time and some inflammatory cytokines level were evaluated. Data were presented as Mean ± SEM (standard deviation error of the mean) and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 statistical software (IBM, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: The probiotic bacterium significantly increased the parasite suppression as the dose of the probiotic bacterium increased, with maximum suppression being 100% at dose 3 on day 20. Also, they significantly prevented body weight loss and body temperature reduction and significantly (p<0.05) increase Interleukin 10 (Il-10) and reduce some proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) in treated mice as compared to untreated mice. This bacterium was also capable to significantly increase the level of red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocytes monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils of treated mice when compared with that of the untreated mice.
Conclusion: Based on these results we therefore concluded that Pediococcus ethanolidurans is a probiotic bacterium with protective effects on malaria disease in the chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected mice.
According to (PMI 2016), $220 million was lost in 2016 due to poor project performance, a 12% increase over 2015. This is strongly related to the profile of the project pilot. The purpose of this article is to study and analyse the different styles of project management and its evolution over time, according to the vision of MIDLER 1996, which groups them into four models: Entrepreneur, Engineering, Taylorian and concurrent.Our article also gives a historical view of the project management by trying to name and characterize the major stages and to understand the main levers of development and diffusion.To do this, our research is based on a survey aimed at managers of Moroccan organizations of different sizes, this work enabled us to implement the project management style most adopted by project managers and to define the criteria for choosing the most appointed project managers. Finally, our article investigated the impact of the health crisis on the economic activity of these organizations and on how to manage projects during the pandemic period.
This study concerns the assessment of the soil quality of a mining site in the Congolese Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo) with the aim of identifying possible pollution from mining. The site concerned is in Kipushi in the southwest of the city of Lubumbashi and has been the subject of mining since 1924 before being shut down in 1993. The methodology adopted consisted of a sampling campaign and in-situ measurements followed by chemical analyzes in the laboratory. The samples were taken using hand augers to a depth between 0 and 30 cm, the permeability was determined by means of percolation test by the constant level method or the Porchet method and the analyzes Elemental chemicals were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Regarding the pH, the results obtained indicate that the soil is acidic in several places and therefore has a great capacity to mobilize ETM. From the point of view of agronomic value, the results show that on the whole site, the soil is poor in organic matter (OM); the average value is 1.64% which reflects an extremely low bacterial activity. As for the elemental chemical composition, the results obtained indicate significant concentrations of trace metal elements (TME) attributable to the mining activity developed on the site for nearly 70 years. These are: Fe (23,400 - 88,300 ppm), Cd (100 - 1,400 ppm), Co (100 - 6,600 ppm), Cu (9,700 - 60,800 ppm), Pb (100 - 19,400 ppm) and Zn (22,400 - 108,100 ppm).
The present article analyzes the strategic value of the Democratic Republic of Congo borders. During the second republic, the personal equation of the statesman, President Joseph Mobutu in this case, based on strategic border management made the country shine in the sub-region. Its fall resulted in a substantial erosion of the role that borders played in safeguarding peace, territorial integrity and the protection of the population. In other words, over the past two decades, border management services have faced challenges of a new nature. Globalization and the threat of terrorism, rebel groups, criminal gangs and even the national armies of neighboring countries have transformed the situation by creating a climate which demands high performance and optimal responsiveness at all times.These borders, which played a significant security role over decades, constitute an Achilles heel for this large sick body today. So how can we ensure a management adapted to the imperatives of the century? Modern technical means are needed, in particular drones, helicopters, night surveillance goggles sitting on an Advanced Warning System. A system that combines people, processes and technologies in new ways to help safeguard the integrity of the territory, the security of cross-border trade, the passage of citizens while promoting economic stability and growth.In addition, the use of techniques has shown their prowess in the integrated management of the EU's borders and in other countries such as Morocco remains the ideal solution to deal with arbitrary incursions and aggressions on Congolese territory. Because the principle of the inviolability of borders is simply ignored by those who swear by the illegal exploitation of the resources of the DRC's soil and subsoil.
In Ivory Coast, the cultivation of the cashew tree (Anacardium occcidentale L.) contributes significantly to the influence and well-being of the populations of the Center and North areas where the poverty rate is high. One of the major constraints encountered is low productivity. The average yield of raw cashew nuts is 547 kg / ha compared to 1598 kg / ha in Nigeria and 9380 kg / ha in Vietnam in 2018. One of the efforts to increase productivity is the sustainable management of soil fertility. The aim of this study is to diagnose the level of chemical fertility of the soils of cashew orchards. Twenty-one orchards at least 20 years old were randomly selected from Korhogo County. Under these orchards, the soil was sampled between 0-30 cm depth. In each orchard, 21 composite samples each from 32 incremental samples were taken. These samples were analyzed for pH and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese contents. These values obtained were compared to the critical limits in order to determine the level of fertility. The results show that the soils are acidic to very acidic. The carbon, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and zinc contents vary from low to very low levels. The content of available phosphorus is good in some orchards. On the other hand, iron, copper and manganese have a high to very high level. Determining adequate manure can improve fertility levels.
This study is dedicated to exploring the role played by the appropriate teacher-student relationship in determining the academic commitment and educational success of students in the second year of middle school. The quantitative approach coupled with a qualitative component for a better understanding of the phenomenon was favored. A sample of 360 students from the middle year two classes participated in the study. The results highlight the predominant role of the teacher in the students' academic commitment, as much by his interpersonal skills as by his know-how towards the pupils. In essence, the analyzes clearly establish that the more the pupil perceives his friendly and warm teacher, the higher his perception of academic competence, thus greatly promoting his academic commitment. Conversely, the more the pupil perceives his teacher to be less affable and warm, the more he perceives himself to be less competent and has a low commitment in school terms. Various intervention measures to help teachers offer quality professional services such as in-service training based on their verbal and non-verbal skills are proposed in order to promote the appropriate teacher-student relationship.
DR Congo is among the African countries with a maternal mortality ratio and rate above the African average. A maternal death is not an isolated event but rather the culmination of a process. Many indicators make it possible to assess the state of health of a population and maternal mortality (intra-hospital) is that which has been studied in our work. This study aims to determine the ratio, the proportions and their respective frequencies, by establishing associations with their factors, in each structure (C.U.L., SENDWE, SNCC, KENYA). This is a cross-sectional descriptive study including 9,977 deliveries for 10 maternal deaths during the year 2019 and retained on the basis of the documentary review and supported by a medical audit. The mean age of the deceased women was 29 years (standard deviation 5.6151). The mean distance was 8 km (E-T 3.3665, KCC 14, 3750, p = 0.1566). The RMMIH is 82 deaths per 100,000 NV, with a rate of 0.08. The mean parity was 4.2 (SD 3.1552), with 50% large multiparas (5 and over), and gestity 5.5 (SD 3.5668), with 40% multigests (6 and more). Genital hemorrhages represented 60% of cases (p = 0.06, KCC 3.1250). 90% followed ANC, which was the only highly significant association with the causes of maternal deaths. The mean recovery time interval was 8.5 minutes (E-T 3.4400). 90% were referred (KCC 10.00, p = 0.067). The staff were 100% qualified. We believe that the results obtained in this study will make it possible to understand the importance of the organization of services, not only in a hospital structure, but also in a service and especially in a health system, while knowing that the environmental conditions childbirth also influence the outcome of pregnancy.
Introduction: As part of a comprehensive study aimed at the reorganization of urban health services, this article describes the therapeutic itinerary of the urban patient in Goma city, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo; the aim of this study was to identify the kind of health services attended by the urban patients. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sampling procedure of 1000 household in Goma city in September 2017. The collected data were collected by professionals encoded and analyzed by statisticians using the SPSS version 23 software. Results: In an episode of sickness, more than half of patients (51%) sought from pharmaceutical offices without a prescription or self-medication, 25% used a structure with a doctor and only 7% sought treatment at the health facility of its health area. In addition, 7% of patients did not use any care while 3% of patients look first treatment in traditional pharmacopoeia. Higher levels of non-use of health care and mortality were noted in households with a female household head. On the other hand, there were no significant difference in the type of care, quality and perceptions of direct cost of care (P>0.05) depending on the head household gender. Discussion and Conclusion: The important recourse of the urban patient to self-medication and secondarily to health services with doctors, requires rethinking the organization and regulation of urban health services and pharmaceutical institutions.