An extended investigation carried out after the discovery of excess occurrence of dioxins and PCB in sheep and goat freely grazing around Europe's largest integrated iron and steel (I&S) factory in Taranto industrial area revealed an ubiquitous recent (by dioxins) and historic (by PCB) contamination. Experimental results, including fingerprint and PCA comparison, excluded single-point emission by the I&S factory as well as by other nearby industrial chimneys, pointing out to fugitive diffuse emission escaping from the I&S sinter plant as the contamination source. The occurrence of two routes of environment contamination and their overlapping toxicity effects through the food chain were demonstrated, due primarily to such diffuse emission and secondarily to PCB present in top soil around the industrial area.
The study area is located in the North of Morocco on the Mediterranean coastline. The purpose of this article is to know the principles of a study of soil stability using geological study and geotechnical test, in order to characterize and to undertake the stability of the areas subject of movement and particularly for landslides by a numerical method (SLIDE 5.0). It will also enable to define the nature of soil at the site using mechanical test and the pressumeter tests supplemented by laboratory tests to understand and deduce the risk of instability affecting this area. The studies and tests have allowed us to highlight a schistose soil. This schist are quite permeable, therefore the flow of water into soil, particularly clays and schist, and when it is saturated in water, its internal cohesion decreases very significantly, which causes the landslides. It is important to understand these instabilities in order to better characterize and define the kind of preventions for this area, where the subject of this study.
This paper gives an insight on the suspension dynamics of the two most widely used models for vehicle dynamics with their complete state space analysis, simulated by using Mat Lab platform. In this paper we investigate the responses of the quarter car and a half car model as the vehicle ride performance is generally assessed at the design stage by simulating the vehicle response to road excitation. This requires the development of a vehicle model to analysis its responses. The time responses and frequency responses of the sprung and unsprung masses have been studied. The optimal solution here is the damping, which has been optimized with the given set of fixed parameters.
We investigated land snail fauna of Katana region, along the Lake Kivu and the Kahuzi-Biega National Park in Democratic Republic of Congo, using a combination of direct search and leaf litter sieving techniques. Four plots, in different habitats (Forest, wetland, cultivated area and fallow) were studied, covering low altitude (1400 - 1590 m), middle altitude (1600 - 1790 m) and high altitude (1800 - 2000 m). A total of 31 species and 2209 individual land snails belonging to 9 molluscan families and 23 genera were collected from all habitats. Species richness was ranged from 25 to 10 at different habitats and different altitudes. The wetland has high species richness (25) and the fallow has low species richness (10). Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica (Achatinidae) were recorded in all the habitats in the region (constant species), where Arion rufus (Arionidae), Homorus amputatus (Achatinidae) and Subulinuscus ruwenzorensis (Achatinidae) are found in one habitat (25 %) and are uncommon in Katana region (accidental species).The land snail species inventories will increase our knowledge of the molluscan fauna of the Katana region and assist in conservation management.
Peat soil is said to problematic soil for any Engineering construction. Hence for any civil engineering construction on peat soil requires either replacement of soil or stabilization, in this paper an attempt is made to stabilize the peat soil using lime and rice husk ash. Rice husk ash being the waste material from rice industry and has pozzolanic property. A stabilizer was prepared by mixing 70%of rice husk ash and 30% of lime. Almost all the standard laboratory tests were conducted for peat soil and also by adding the stabilizer by varying the dosage as 5,10,15% by weight of soil. Finally study of the contribution of stabilizer on the properties of peat soils and its feasibility for various civil engineering applications is evaluated. The results show the increment of soil properties like dry density and unconfined compressive strength. From the study it was found that 15% of stabilizer yielded maximum density and strength indicating significant improvement in the engineering behavior.
Afield experiment was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers on some quality parameters of two maize cultivars in arid land in west Saudi Arabia during two seasons 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The experiment was laid out in split split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment consisted of two maize cultivars, three levels of chemical fertilizers NPK (20:20:20) applied at 100, 500 and 1000kg/ha and eight treatments of alfalfa green manure, chicken manure, cow manure and their combinations. The quality parameters studied were protein, oil and minerals content. The results indicated that protein content of maize grains was increased significantly with the increasing of chemical fertilizer for the two seasons, whereas the application of organic fertilizers increased the protein content significantly only in the second season. All measured quality parameters under organic treatments were recorded the highest and significant values in the second season. Among the organics, the combination of alfalfa, chicken and cow manures was superior to other treatments in term of protein content and minerals, where the highest protein content recorded in the second season was 11.14% comparing to the lowest value recorded by the control which was 9.63%, the mineral content in the second season for the same treatment for potassium, calcium, iron and zinc was 17.99, 2.09, 0.69 and 0.18 g/kg whereas for the control was 16.65, 1.29, 0.473 and 0.074 g/kg for K, Ca, Fe and Zn respectively. The oil content was affected by organic manures only in the second season. Alfalfa green manure recorded the highest oil content in the second season with a percentage of 5.6% whereas the lowest content was recorded by the control which was 5.11%.
The grid connected wind energy generation system for power quality improvement by using STATCOM-control scheme is simulated using MATLAB When the wind power is connected to an electric grid affects the power quality. The effects of connecting wind turbine in grid system covers power quality areas are the active power, reactive power, and variation of voltage, harmonics and electrical behavior of switching operations. The installation of wind system with the grid introduces the power quality problems which can be determined by studying this paper. By using the Static Compensator (STATCOM) with a battery energy storage system (BESS) at the point of common coupling to improve the power quality of the grid. The battery energy storage used to maintain real power from varying wind power. At low power demand hours The generated power can be stored in the batteries. The combination of battery storage with wind energy generation system will stabilize the grid system by absorbing or injecting reactive power and enable the real power flow required by the load. This relives the main supply source from the reactive power demand of the load and the induction generator in this proposed scheme.
End stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by disorders of both the innate and adaptive systems. No study is available on disturbance of immune system in ESRD Moroccans patients under dialysis treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the immune status in these patient groups. Our results show the need for a further study in our patients, who are in a state of chronic inflammation following activation of complement, and immune dysfunction leading to impaired function of cells T, B and NK, accompanied by decreased production of antibodies. Understanding the mechanisms behind the immune dysfunction in ESRD generates a perspective to improve lifestyle and reduce mortality in this group of patients.
An old saying states that "the ram is half the flock", since his genes will provide one-half of the genetic makeup of his lambs. One of the primary tools which sheep breeders have at their disposal for the improvement of their herds is selection of breeding ram. Rams are the primary means by which genetic improvement can be made in a flock. If the ram's daughters will be retained in the flock for breeding purposes, he should come from a productive ewe or line. His dam should be one of the most productive members of the flock. Therefore choose rams from good ewes. The selection, of course, is a group term that includes many activities: recording, identifying, and the use of formal programs involving Record of Performance (R.O.P) testing and so on. In Balochistan sheep farming communities it may not be possible to fulfill the requirements of a sound R.O.P testing mainly due to noncommercial small ruminant production practices and very low level of literacy. However through this article the sheep farmers of the province can be helped in selecting their breeding rams through visual appraisal on certain desired breeding traits/ characters. The farmers in the province mostly practice breed specific selective breeding and like to retain ewe lambs, from their own breeding rams. Therefore much attention is required towards selection of true to type breeding rams. The ram must beer the traits which are heritable and, definable, by visual methods and which have an economic value. The breeding goals in addition to body growth and conformation must emphasise fleece characters such as fibre length, fibre density and above all the wool colour which should be white with minimum grease, etc.). Use only selected rams for breeding and castrate all males so as to enforce the required breeding traits.Strive to keep inbreeding below 5% per generation. As the coefficient of inbreeding (COI, the degree of relatedness) increases in a flock, inbreeding depression may occur, during which fertility, growth, and other reproductive traits tend to decline. Such declines are especially dramatic when the COI reaches or exceeds 30%. It is therefore advised that the sheep breeders exchange breeding rams.
This paper presents a new and innovative technique for handling collisions in hash tables based on a multi-dimensional array. The proposed strategy followed the standard ways of evaluating and implementing algorithms to resolve collisions in hash tables. This technique is an effective way of handling the problem of collisions in hash table slots or cells but at a slight expense of space. It was discussed that an optimal representation of this scheme is to minimize or completely remove the empty spaces created within the array.
Using Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) has a great possibility for rising physician's performance in their daily work which improves quality, safety and efficiency in healthcare that are slowly being adopted throughout the world. The adoption of EMRs as a new technology in healthcare system is an important issue which has to be scrutinized as well. In physician practices, the rate of EMRs adoption has been slow and restricted in spite of the cost savings through lower administrative costs and medical errors related to EMR systems. Hence, this research is conducted to identify, categorize, and analyze Meso-level dimension which introduced by , for the adoption of EMRs in the healthcare context. To collect data, Likert-based and pairwise questionnaires were designed and distributed among the public experts and physicians healthcare organizations. Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (F-TOPSIS) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (F-AHP) was applied involves in quantitative approach in the ranking and weighting of the factors presented in Meso-level dimension framework. As a result, in this study, we develop a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) framework for healthcare industry improvement and adoption of EMR. The purpose of ranking and weighting using the F-TOPSIS and F-AHP is to inspect which factors are most imperative in EMRs adoption among primary care physicians. Performing F-TOPSIS and F-AHP is as novelty methods in this study for identifying the critical factors of EMRs adoption to assist healthcare organizations specifically hospitals setting in pursuing their key users' behavior towards accepting of this new technology. We find that seven factors, namely time investment, screen/room, hybrid system, planning, resource training, workflow, and weight, are the most influential criteria and strongest drivers in the adoption of EMR in Malaysia's primary care setting.
A comprehensive numerical simulation of fluid dynamics based study of a pleated wing section based on the wing of Aeshna Cyanea has been performed at ultra-low Reynolds number corresponding to the gliding flight of these dragonflies in order to explore the potential applications of pleated airfoils for micro air vehicle applications. The simulation employs an unstructured triangular mesh based on finite volume discretization done in the ANSYS-14.0 using WorkBench14.0.Whenever, dragonfly wing interacts with the fluid (air taken), several forces and vibrations results out. These forces and vibrations cause certain changes over the dimensional structure over the wing and also influence the flows characteristics. A critical assessment of the computed results was performed. In this work, various flow patterns and aerodynamic performance of pleated airfoil has been obtained at ultra-low Reynolds numbers (2000-3000) at different angle of attacks (AOA) ranging from 0° to 15°. Also there effects on coefficient of Lift and Drag have been analysed. The simulations demonstrate that pleated airfoil produces higher lift and moderate drag that lead to an aerodynamic performance and hence pleated airfoil is an excellent choice for a fixed wing micro-air vehicle application.
Heavy metal content in animal manure could influence soil quality, contaminate crops and cause health risks to both livestock and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties and heavy metal composition of manure of some domestic animals. Manure samples were collected from six domestic animals (goat, cow, donkey, pig, turkey and layer chickens). Standardized protocols were followed for sample preparation and analysis of heavy metal content. The physical properties (physical appearance, moisture content and organic matter) of the samples were observed and recorded. The metals measured were Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Nickel (Ni). Concentrations of heavy metals were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The results showed that donkey manure had the lowest Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Mg contents. Pig manure had the highest Fe content as well as the lowest Mn, Cd and Ca contents. It is recommended that manure of farm animals be cautiously examined for heavy metal content before its application to the soils of agricultural farms or fields.
It was highly desirable for a machine to interact more friendly with the users so that the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) emerged and Natural Language Interface to Databases (NLIDBs) systems are built and design. A major problem faced by the users of the data bases is that the databases generally make use of special purpose languages familiar only to the trained users like Structured Query Language (SQL). Natural Language Interface to Databases provides the interface in which queries are written in the form Natural Language. These queries are passed through the machine, machine translates these queries. There are different levels of it, after passing these levels machine produce relevant results. This paper will provides comprehensive understanding about Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Interface to Databases.
The present study is aimed to investigate the relationship and gender differences between self-esteem and social anxiety in physically handicapped people. The sample consists of 150 disables (75 males, 75 females) taken from Government schools for special learners and other vocational training institutes from 3 cities of Southern Punjab, Rahim-yar-khan, Bahawalpur, Multan through purposive sampling technique. Age of participants ranged 18-25 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Leibowitz social anxiety scale (Liebowitz,1987), were applied to access self-esteem and social anxiety of participants. Statistical analysis was done through SPSS, Pearson product-moment correlation co-efficient and independent sample t-test was applied for evaluation of results. Results indicates that self-esteem is negatively correlated with social anxiety (r = -.321**, p=.000) in physically handicapped. The findings of result showed that physically handicapped women have low self-esteem as compare to men [t= 7.720 (0.000), p< 0.05]. The findings also showed that physically handicapped female experienced high levels of social anxiety as compared to male [t= -8.094(0.000), df= 148, p<0.05].
Textile industry is one of those industries that consume large amounts of water during the manufacturing process and, also, discharge great amounts of effluents with synthetic dyes to the environment causing public concern. Azo dyes are applied in textile industries, are considered to be serious health-risk factors. Several physico-chemical and biological methods for dye removal from wastewater have been investigated in the last decades. But, these treatment techniques need posterior separation process which significantly affects the economic performance of the plant. On the other hand, adsorption is one of the efficient methods and needs low capital and operational costs. Thus, this study investigates the potential use of low cost activated carbon prepared from the rice husk for the removal of Methylene Blue wastes. The rice husk was collected form rice mill and washed repeatedly until the dirty was eliminated. Then, it was heated at 500 oC for 30 min and the activated carbon had been activated with H2SO4 in order to make the carbon porous. A batch experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of various parameters. Uv-visibile spectrometer was used for the analysis of final concentration of the effluent. Experimental results have shown that, the amount of dye adsorption increased with decreasing the initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. Over 99% removal efficiency were achieved for the given dosage. With respect pH, pH value of 8-10 was found to be the optimal value.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Egyptian biomass based on Date palm fronds, (Phoenix dactylifera L) for full-scale manufacturing to produce particleboard of requested quality. For the evaluation, Date palm rachises (DPR) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were compared for some of the chemical properties, such as holocellulose, Alfa-cellulose, lignin and ash contents, alcohol–benzene extractives, solubility in dilute alkali (1%NaOH), and hot water solubility. In addition, DPR fiber physical properties such as fiber length diameters, cell wall thickness, scanning with SEM, estimate of ?-cellulose degree of polymerization (DP) and pH of DPR fibers were determined. Particleboards were made from DPR and SCB as surface and core layer were prepared and mixed with different percentages of urea-formaldehyde (UF) as a binder. The mechanical properties of produced boards such as density, thickness swelling (TS), bending strength (BS), modulus elasticity (MOE), and internal bond (IB) were measured. Chemical composition of DPR is slight better than SCB. Moreover, the values of DPR fiber lengths, diameters and cell wall thickness are also in the range of hardwoods values. The results indicated that all the panels met the requirements for Load-bearing boards for use in dry conditions type (P4) of European standard (EN 314: 2010).
This experiment was carried out to design modified Lee's disc method of measuring the thermal conductivity of a poor conductor in the form of a flat disc. The modified Lee's disc set-up is equipped with various types of electrical device and probes. The components used to implement the design were chosen because of their ability to withstand high voltage and temperature levels. Most of these instruments are utilized in industrial settings. The designed instrument was used to test the thermal conductivity of some low insulating materials. The value of k which is the rate of flow of heat through a material per unit area per unit temperature gradient was determined. The units of k are Wm-1K-1 (from Js-1m-1K-1). The thermal conductivity of the selected materials was tested to validate the effectiveness of the modified design.
In Tunisia, the protection of groundwater resources, widely attacked by anthropic activities, against its contamination by nitrates has prompted the state to implement a national network for monitoring groundwater quality. The present work aims the characterization of the nitric quality of five aquifers in Kasserine region (Central West of Tunisia) and the identification of potential sources of water pollution. The study involved 22 wells water surface followed during 17 years (1996-2013). The temporal variation of nitrate showed a significant contamination with a concentration greatly exceeding the recommended norm during the period 1999-2003. The latter coincides with the phase of agricultural intensification related to the non-reasoned application of fertilizer coupled with the bad irrigation management. Nevertheless, between 2004 and 2013, the contamination tends to decrease and nitrates concentrations have stabilized around the potability threshold. The results also showed that nitrates levels are related to the soil type, irrigation techniques adopted by farmers and nitrogen supply. Indeed, excessive nitrogen inputs with a coarse texture and a gravity irrigation technique tend to increase the concentration of well water by nitrates. However, correlation between nitrates, piezometry and climatic factors, particularly, the rainfall could not be highlighted in the study area.
Globalization and advancement in technology are driving changes in the social, technological, economical, environmental and political landscapes at such a pace and magnitude that is too great and too multiple to ignore. Teachers are expected to facilitate learning and making it useful and meaningful to the individual learner by providing knowledge and skills. Innovative technologies are providing teachers with new possibilities but at the same time placing more demands on teachers to learn how to use these technologies in their teachings and prepare students with the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st century. ICT has great potential for enhancing teaching and learning outcomes. This would in turn depend on the kind of training that the teacher has undergone. ICT teacher training should therefore be considered as continuing process, with the need of continuing support.
Crystal form of N-TiO2/WO3 Nano-Composite material was prepared from urea, commercial TiO2 and WO3 by simple solid phase reaction followed by calcinations at a temperature of 400 °C for four hours at each step. The as-synthesized photocatalyst was characterized using XRD and Uv-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra. It was found that the absorption edge of N-TiO2/WO3 was well extended to visible light. Dark experiment has been done to know the degree of photodegradation of adsorption of PR over the studied photocatalyst under non-irradiation. The result obtained was for photocatalytic degradation of adsorbed PR was only about 6.32%. The as-synthesized photocatalyst was highly active under visible irradiation (93.87%) than under UV irradiations (75.74%). This may be due to the fact that the absorption edge of the modified TiO2 particle shifts to visible light range.
The present study was conducted to explore the relationship of self-esteem destitute and non-destitute women (N = 60). Urdu translation of Self-Esteem Scale (Hudson, 1982), comprised of 25 items, was used to measure self-esteem. It was hypothesized that self-esteem of the destitute women will be lower than non-destitute women. Results indicated that destitute women have lower self-esteem than non-destitute women. Results regarding education indicate that in over all groups, women whose education is up to matriculation have lower self-esteem than those whose education is greater than matriculation. Another demographic which marital status, no differences have been resulted in overall sample of married and unmarried women on Self-esteem Scale. Another demographic was age on Self-Esteem Scale adolescents have low-esteem than the adults in overall sample.
L'Oxalis pes-caprae, L. qui se multiplie essentiellement par voie végétative (rhizome et bulbe), est une plante invasive riche en métabolites secondaires et qui a envahie tous les terrains en Afrique du Nord et particulièrement en Tunisie. En vue d'exploiter la diversité génétique des ressources végétales en général, nous avons pensé à étudier la diversité génétique de cette espèce et d'exploiter les métabolites secondaires qu'elle en contient. Dans cette étude limitée à la zone de la Péninsule du Cap Bon de la Tunisie, nous avons montré que cette espèce pourrait se multiplier par voie sexuée et contribuer à sa diversité génétique. Les résultats obtenus ont montré une grande diversité de pigmentation qui a été confirmée par l'étude moléculaire. L'utilisation des inters simples séquences répétées (ISSR) a montré que les accessions du Cap Bon peuvent être classées en quatre groupes homogènes différents.
The origin of the dark coloration in some Paleozoic shales in Tafilalet Basin was the subject of along geological debate. Is it due to the richness of organic matter? The abundance of dark minerals? Or both of them? This paper consists to characterize some dark shales dating from Paleozoic of the Eastern Anti-Atlas of Morocco. The Thermogravimetric and differential thermalanalysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope are experimental tools that have been used in this study. The results of these analyze show that dark shales of Tafilalet basin are rick on organic matter. This study may be useful in oil field exploration.
This research examines the volume of waste generated by sawmill industries vis-à-vis the management method adopted by sawmills and the prevailing diseases in the study areas and proffer appropriate solutions that is expected to improve the residential environment and make it more aesthetic and therefore improve the health of the people. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected through the administration of structured questionnaire which was administered on household-heads within 1-kilometer radius of the selected sawmill industries. The second, which was administered on the sawmill operators, examined the waste management practices and safety health measures adopted by the saw millers. The third set of questionnaire was administered on Town Planning Authorities, covering the location of the sawmill industries. Random systematic sampling method was employed to select the residents within the two study areas. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data processing. Analysis of data was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this research clearly reveal the locations of sawmill industries in the study areas, the volume of waste generated by each sawmill industry including the various modes of waste disposal practices adopted. It also reveals the various ways by which sawmill wastes can be put into use and went further to expose the various environmental and health problems pose by the operation of sawmill industries. Finally, relevant recommendations were made to find solution to the various problems pointed out by the researcher.
This paper aimed at ascertaining and examining the contribution of micro-credit institutions to women poverty alleviation and the following specific objectives formed important part of this study; to identify the factors attracting women to join credit services, to examine conditions used by micro-credit institutions in financing women credit borrowers, to examine the effects of credit to women borrowers in poverty alleviation, to identify the challenges facing women credit borrowers in acquiring credit and finally to identify the strategies taken to overcome challenges facing women credit borrowers in acquiring credits. The target population for this study was women credit borrowers. The study constituted a sample size of 40 respondents obtained through probability and non probability sampling. Case study design approach was employed during study. Questionnaires, interview, focus group discussion, documentary review and observations were used during data collection. The study findings showed that micro-credit institutions have great impacts and contributed to improve standard of living of many women credit borrowers and poverty alleviation at household level. The conditions, procedures, and terms used by micro credit institutions in providing credits to women credit borrowers hinder the micro- credit initiative to serve as an essential strategy for poverty alleviation. This paper concludes and recommends that despite of prevailing large number of micro credit institutions and organizations that provide financial assistance to women in poverty alleviation still difficult loan conditions like collateral, unfriendly repayment schedules, higher interest rates continue to hinder and limit participation of many women.
This paper identified and assessed factors responsible for failure in the public schools in the year 2013. The findings confirm that during the past five years, Tanzania has experienced alarming student failure rates in the public schools in particular. This paper revealed that most of the public schools have acute shortages of text books as well as laboratory equipment, incompetent and unmotivated teachers and also heavily lacking sound learning infrastructure. This study, due to financial and time constraints, adopted a case study design to strengthen investigation and therefore chose to use kinondoni district. A sample of 50 respondents was drawn and created by the use of both simple random sampling (to obtain 30 students), and purposive sampling (to get 10 parents/households, 5 head teachers, and 5 disctrict edication officers). Questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, observation, and review of existing education reports were employed to collect data. Data analysis was done through excel software. The study concludes and recommends the government should improve work environment by attractive salaries, better treatment of teachers, and provision of sound learning equipment and infrastructure, total subsidisation of the public schools education service delivery and ensuring effective management of this vital sector to the socio-economic development of this nation.
During the years 2005 to 2008, Zimbabwe plunged into an economic depression. Many social and economic systems were severely shaken, while others crumpled. The education sector was not spared. Many schools closed as teachers left their jobs for the informal sector while others crossed the borders in search of greener pastures. It was against this background that some parents mooted the idea of incentivising teachers as a way of retaining and motivating them. Many teachers were given financial incentives, while in a few cases, incentives were paid in kind. With incentives, some semblance of sanity returned to the education sector. Unfortunately, a few years down the line, the issue of incentives courted so much controversy, poisoning relations amongst stakeholders, especially between parents and teachers. This study assessed how incentives were administered and why they spoiled relations amongst stakeholders. This qualitative study made use of the survey research design where data were collected through questionnaires and interviews from teachers and parents in Chipinge district of Zimbabwe. The study recommended that incentives should be upheld, but the incentive scheme needed to be revisited in order to benefit all stakeholders in the education system.
Between 2005 and 2008, Zimbabwe experienced one of her worst economic depressions since attaining independence in 1980. The Zimbabwean dollar was rendered valueless, basic goods disappeared from the shelves, salaries were reduced to rubbles and a number of companies closed. In the midst of this economic malaise, a group of self-styled illegal informal businesspeople rose to prominence. They replaced almost anything that was formal and dictated life in almost all spheres. All this happened at the mercy of the ordinary law-abiding citizens. The government of Zimbabwe tried every trick in the bag to contain these illegal informal activities, for example, by controlling prices, arresting unlicensed informal traders, limiting daily bank withdrawals and licensing trade in foreign currency. All these efforts were unsuccessful. With the dawn of dollarisation in February 2009, the illegal informal sector was swiftly swept off its pedestal. This study envisaged to assess the exploits of the illegal informal traders and how dollarisation hit them right in the face and lastly it assessed their post-dollarisation survival strategies. This qualitative study was informed through use of semi-structured interviews and personal observation. A sample of illegal informal traders was purposely selected from the town of Chipinge in Manicaland province of Zimbabwe.
The present study was prompted by the observation that there was very high prevalence of suicide ideation and attempts among students in secondary schools in Kenya. The objective of the study was to explore the influence of personality traits on suicide ideation and attempts among learners in public secondary school students in Kenya. The target population comprised of the students population (5940), Guidance and Counseling teachers (29), teachers (289) and the sub county educational officers (8). Overall, the sampled respondents were 300 covering all the categories of the study comprising 260 students, 8 sub county educational officers and 28 class teachers and 4 heads of Guidance and Counseling. The data collection instruments comprised of questionnaires and interviews schedules. The instruments were piloted and tested for reliability at 0.7 reliability coefficients while validity was established by seeking assistance of supervisors and other experts. The collected data was analyzed using thematic analysis for qualitative data while quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics like frequency tables and the regression model. The findings established that the study components comprising personality. The findings from the regression analysis yielded the value of R=0.848 which means the variation in the number of suicide ideations and attempts are explained by the study components. Further, the computed value of R2=0.72 demonstrates a strong positive relationship of the study variables and the incidences of suicide ideation and attempts in Kenya. The study recommends the establishment and strengthening of Guidance and Counseling programmes, training guidance and counseling teachers to reach out to the students, fostering life skills among the students to cope with the day to day challenges, enhancing the co-curricular activities to keep the students busy and change of behavior attitudes among the students.
The present study was driven by high prevalence of suicide ideation and attempts among students in secondary schools in Kenya. The objective of the study was the relational analysis of the family history contribution on suicide ideation and attempts among learners in public secondary school students in Kenya. The study was based on mixed methodology using qualitative and quantitative research designs. The target population comprised of the students population (5940), Guidance and Counseling teachers (29), teachers (289) and the sub county educational officers (8). Overall, the sampled respondents were 300 covering all the categories of the study comprising 260 students, 8 sub county educational officers and 28 class teachers and 4 heads of Guidance and Counseling. The data collection instruments comprised of questionnaires and interviews schedules. The instruments were piloted and tested for reliability at 0.7 reliability coefficients while validity was established by seeking assistance of supervisors and other experts. The collected data was analyzed using thematic analysis for qualitative data while quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics like frequency tables and the regression model. The findings established that the study component of family history had a significant contribution to the frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in Kenya. The findings from the regression analysis yielded the value of R=0.848 which means the variation in the number of suicide ideations and attempts are explained by the study components. Further, the computed value of R2=0.72 demonstrates a strong positive relationship of the study variables and the incidences of suicide ideation and attempts in Kenya. The study recommends the establishment and strengthening of Guidance and Counseling programmes, training guidance and counseling teachers to reach out to the students, fostering life skills among the students to cope with the day to day challenges, enhancing the co-curricular activities to keep the students busy and change of behavior attitudes among the students.
Bacterial infectious diseases continue causing havoc while pharmaceutical firms produce less inhibitor against pathogens. In the frame of this anti infectious fight, we chose to work on Lavandula multifida L. (Lm) from Southern Morocco. Steam-distillation of the plant was done with Clevenger-type apparatus and Essential Oil (EO) obtained was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). A phytochemical study of the species was also performed through standard qualitative reactions with specific reagents. Antibacterial activity of EO was first achieved through discs-diffusion tests against Escherichia coli (Ec0A, Ec0B), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psa0A, Psa0B) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp0A, Kp0B). Then Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined by macrodilution method and Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) were determined. Steam-distillation of the species yielded 2.01 ml of EO for 100g of dried matter and analyses revealed Phenol 2,3,5,6 tetramethyl as major component with 89.97%. Phytochemical tests proved the existence of polyphénols, triterpenes, sterols, mucilage and saponosids. Biological tests proved that this EO has a significant antibacterial power against the germs despite their resistance to Beta-lactamin, aminosid and polymyxin antibiotics. Extreme inhibition diameters were 37.3±4.4mm for Ec0B and 10.6±0.5mm for Psa0A. 0.6µl/ml was the MBC against Ec0A, 9.6µl/ml was the MBC obtained against Psa0A and Psa0B. This study, among the rare found about this species, confirms its utilization by local people to treat digestive and respiratory infections. Discovery of a chemotype is a good way to valorize the species. It could be easily isolated to serve as a model for new antibacterial drug.
This study focuses on how to develop an effective online learning platform as a developing basis of digital learning materials for museum guiding course. A new learning mode of mobile guiding system will be proposed with example of the printing collections of National Science and Technology Museum. The museum digital resources will be converted into digital learning materials which can be used by the museum's volunteer tour guides through multimedia and mobile carrier. Such platform will be helpful for museum volunteer tour guide training and their self-growing. It will further provide museum visitors more autonomous learning environment.
Face recognition is the ability to establish a subject's identity based on facial characteristics. Face recognition has a wide range of applications, including Human-Computer-interaction, Driver's license, National ID, Passports, Voter registration, Security system, Personal device logon, Desktop logon, Information security, Database security, Internet access, CCTV control and Suspect tracking and investigation. A face recognition system based on the age prediction is developed in this research. The system consists of two stages; age prediction and face recognition. In age prediction stage, eigenvectors and eigenfaces are calculated from the input image. New faces are projected onto the space expanded by eigenfaces and represented by weighted sum of the eigenfaces. These weights are used to identify the age of the faces. In face recognition stage, the predicted image will be searched to a certain age group of the database and all images within this age group would be considered as potential matches for the final level recognition. The age dependent face recognition system is developed based on 11 individual aging classes, which yields a great reduction time complexity in search space than searching the entire database. The algorithms that have been developed are tested on AT&T, Yale, MORPH and FG-NET Face Databases. The goals of the system are 1) to create the fast recognition system for the face database 2) to predict how old the person is and to carry out the face recognition system based on this predicted age 3) to stop underage drinkers from entering bars, prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products from vending machines 4) deny children access to adult Web sites by predicting their age. The main advantage of this system is reduction of searching time and it requires small memory usage. According to the experiment result, this system is an effective age dependent face recognition system.
Ce travail a pour objectif d'évaluer la qualité microbiologique du lait cru dans la région du Gharb. Pour ce, nous avons réalisé des études physicochimique et microbiologique du lait cru livré au centre de collecte Al Fouarate. Le nombre des échantillons a été fixé à dix: 2 à partir des bacs réfrigérants, 3 à partir du lait des ramasseurs et 5 à partir de celui des éleveurs. Les prélèvements se faisaient un jour sur deux pendant 20 jours et ont tous été effectués entre 8h et 9h30 du matin. Dans l'étude physicochimique, nous avons mesuré la température, le pH, la densité, l'acidité titrable, la matière sèche et les cendres. Dans l'étude microbiologique, nous nous somme intéressés au dénombrement et à l'isolement des bactéries et des champignons, à savoir la flore mésophile aérobie totale, coliformes, Staphylocoques, Listeria, bactéries lactiques, levures et moisissures. L'étude des caractéristiques physico-chimiques du lait cru n'a pas montré de variations significatives pour la plupart des paramètres étudiés. Cependant, la température des échantillons et celle ambiante sont légèrement élevées, ce qui favorise la prolifération des germes et l'altération de la qualité du lait. D'autre part, la valeur moyenne en flore mésophile aérobie totale est de 2.15 107 ufc/ml. La charge moyenne en flore de contamination fécale est de l'ordre de 3.02 105 ufc/ml. Cette valeur élevée serait une indication d'une pollution fécale des cultures fourragères servant à l'alimentation des vaches laitières par les effluents domestiques des agglomérations de la région. Par ailleurs, la présence massive des levures et moisissures dans le lait cru peut être due à une forte contamination extérieure et une mauvaise hygiène des ustensiles.
The study focus on land use land cover, drainage network, stream ordering and age of the streams in the extended area of Bannerghatta National Park. The drainage network and micro watersheds are developed for the study, using ArcGIS by manually the drainage network and micro watersheds delineated and for these micro watersheds, bifurcation ratio was found using the Strahler method of stream order to find the age of the streams and also the drainage network and micro watersheds are extracted using ArcHyro tools. In the study area we have tried to understand the landuse and landcover by supervised classification using maximum likely hood classifier with the ENVI software.
This work presents the results of experiments conducted to quantify primary fragmentation of wood (Casuarina Equisetifolia) during the devolatilization in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Cylindrical wood particles having five different sizes ranging from 10 to 30 mm and aspect ratio (l/d=1) have been used for the study. Experiments were conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed combustor having silica sand as the inert bed material and air as the fluidizing medium. Studies have been carried out at three different bed temperatures (Tbed=750, 850 and 950 °C), two inert bed material sizes (mean size dp=375 and 550 µm) and two fluidizing velocities (u=5umf and u=10umf). Limited experiments were also conducted at a bed temperature of 850 °C to study the influence of the presence of wood bark. Primary fragmentation was found to be most severe for larger sizes and at higher bed temperatures. Also, fragmentation did not show any conclusive influence on the devolatilization time.
In image processing an essential step is image segmentation. The aim of segmentation is to simplify and to change the representation of an image into a form easier to analyse. Many image segmentation methods are available but most of these methods are not suitable for thermal image and they need prior knowledge. In order to overcome these obstacles, a new thermal image segmentation methodis developed using an unsupervised artificial neural network method called Kohonen's self-organizing map and a threshold technique. Kohonen's self-organizing map is used to organize the pixels according to Gary level values of multiple bands into groups then a threshold technique is used to cluster the image into dislocate zone, this mode is TSOM.
Analyzing the stability of similariton pulse in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. The intracavity elements comprise an Yb doped fiber, a saturable absorber and a single mode fiber. Stability of the pulse has been investigated in the presence of the higher order linear and nonlinear effects of third order dispersion and self-steepening respectively.
The paper summarizes the statistic data about the progress of the Decade for Inclusion of the Roma in Republic Macedonia 2005-2010. The article is devided in 5 parts and gives results in the most vurnable areas connected with the Roma population. The statistic data is a result of my research where 538 people from 17 municipalities were questioned and answered questions about general health condition of Roma, attitude toward the Roma in the health sector, health insurance situation of the Roma, employment of the Roma in the health sector, housing problems of the Roma, property documentation issues, relationships between Roma and non Roma as neighbors, inclusion in preschool, elementary and high school, and university education, and attitude toward the Roma in the educational sector. The result from the survey is that the highest percent of negative responses are in Kumanovo, Shtip and Vinica. There are no positive changes in the municipalities in Skopje, Gostivar, Kichevo and Kochani. Data show that significantly progress is achieved in the aspect of the inclusion of the Roma in preschool, elementary, high school and university education. 74% of the surveyed state that the inclusion of the Roma at university level is increased and only 1% state that the inclusion is decreased.