Recently, the interaction between humans and robots has become an important issue for extending the use of robots. The purpose of this project is to show how a real-time human-robot interaction with hand gesture recognition which can be constructed using color recognition System. Hence, it is required that the following two major questions be resolved in this study. Firstly, either staying in indoor or outdoor lighting conditions, the robot must be able to detect and spot hand gestures with a specific color from data of robot vision system. Secondly, it is necessary that the robot also can interpret hand gestures performed by humans.
In Kenya, Kiswahili is important, not only as a national and official language in Kenya, but as a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school curricula. There has been an outcry by various stakeholders that learners perform poorly in Kiswahili in both local and national examinations. The focus of this paper is to assess the availability of the conditions requisite for excellence and educational resources used in teaching and learning Kiswahili among the hearing impaired learners. The study was carried out at the Mumias School for the Deaf in Kakamega County, Kenya. The school was purposively selected because all the pupils in the school had hearing impairment. A sample size of six teachers and thirty-two pupils was involved in the study. The study was guided by the behaviourist theory of language acquisition which emphasizes language learning through Stimulus-Response-Reward (S-R-R) chains. It employed qualitative approach as a major research methodology and was carried out in the form of a case study. Quantitative analysis was used to compare KCPE results between Kiswahili and other subjects in the school. The instruments used for data collection were: non-participant observation guide, three interview guides for the head teacher, Kiswahili teachers and learners with HI, document analysis and data sheets. Raw data collected was categorized into themes and data presentation was done using frequency distribution tables, pie charts, histograms line graph and descriptive passages. Interpretation of the study findings was done in the light of the tenets of the study guiding theory of Stimulus-Response-Rewards (S-R-R). The study found that performance in Kiswahili was poor due to several reasons, among them being the conditions at the school were not conducive to effective learning of Kiswahili. It was recommended that teachers should revert to the horse-shoe seating arrangement as this would inevitably shift the passive class atmosphere to one that is more interactive and cordial, allowing peer-peer learning to take place. Moreover, classrooms should be flooded with play things especially in lower classes to facilitate more Kiswahili language experiences. A change in policy that would provide KSL training for examination officials in order to improve examination standards and that teachers train learners with HI on how to tackle examination questions.
Cloud computing focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the sharing of resources. It is not only shared by multiple users but can also dynamically reallocating as per demand. Cloud computing is the notion of outsourcing on-site available services and data storage to an off-site. Personal data stored in the cloud may contain account number, password, notes and other important information that could be used and misused by a miscreant, a competitor or a court of law. These data are cached, copied and archived by Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), often without user authorization and control. To overcome this problem to propose a Self Destruction method is protecting the user data privacy through Shamir Secret sharing algorithm, which can generate a pair of keys. Self Destruction method is associated with Time to Live (TTL) property to specify the life time of the keys. TTL trigger the Self Destruction operation, then the keys becomes destructed or unreadable after a user specified period. User can decrypt after timeout, either the user give correct keys. Shamir algorithm generates new keys to the user. Self Destruction mechanism reduces the overhead during upload and download file in the cloud. The result demonstrates that Self Destruction is practical to use and meet all privacy preserving goals. In this paper, active storage framework provides virtualization environment to run client's application and data is treated as objects to increase the throughput and decrease the latency.
In this paper, a modified soft switching DC/DC converter with a full ZVS range with improved output voltage regulation high voltage and high frequency is presented and analyzed. This modified dc-dc converter is designed with two newly proposed half bridge inverter that are situated in parallel among the primary side and phase shifting is made to regulate the output voltage .The novel topology solves the drawbacks of the existing converter .This improved soft switching converter has a major advantage of reduced duty cycle losses and no circulating current. Similarly having reduced output filter. In this proposed converter is provided with proper filter design. The analysis and design is made using mat lab simulation tool.
The component of choice for many more DC Filter, energy storage and similar applications for the 21st century is High crystalline segmented metallized polypropylene capacitors are. With the introduction of higher crystalline and higher temperature dielectric, the size of segmented metallized polypropylene capacitors were reduced at least 33 percent while increasing the life expectancy and reducing the costs over previous designs. Higher temperature operation of at least 110C is also accomplished with this material type. Capacitors are now manufactured using the combined segmented and high crystalline metallized polypropylene technology that allow denser power system packaging and lower manufacturing costs than other capacitor choices.
The Poisoning caused by gaseous products still frequent, serious and often unrecognized. It represents a real menace to public health. The prevention is necessary to reduce the severity of this problem. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics of patients poisoned by gaseous products. In The present epidemiological study we collected 380 cases of poisoning reported by provincial delegation of Errachidia, during a period from 2004 to 2011. The results showed the average age of the intoxicated was 26 ±16years. The poisonings in this province mainly concerne the adults whose age is between 20 and 74 years (59.04% of cases). The average incidence was 0.85 per 10000 inhabitants. The female patients predominated with 67.10%, the sex ratio (F/M) was 2.04. The frequencies of the highest poisoning were recorded in the urban area with 92%. The poisonings were accidental in 97.1% of the cases. Neuro-intestinal symptoms were the most frequent (36.8%), followed by neurological signs (35.5%) and gastrointestinal (22.1%).
Cytomegalovirus is one of the opportunistic infections associated with significantly high morbidity and mortality among patients living with immunodeficiency syndrome. Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses and are members of the Herpesviridae family CMV are recognized pathogens that cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in compromised hosts. We investigated the prevalence of CMV among seropositive cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from Northern India. In this study we observed the relationship between CMV infections among the immunocompromised patients. This study carried out in Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow and Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Total 250 HIV sero-positive cases were considered in study of CMV infection. HIV status was confirmed by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) done at antiretroviral (ART) center, KGMU, Lucknow. CMV positivity was evaluated by CMV- IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA kit. Among 250 HIV positive cases 10.4% were found positive for CMV- IgG where as 8.4% were positive for CMV- IgM however 1.2% were found to be positive for both CMV- IgG and CMV- IgM. Sero-prevalence of CMV IgG and IgM among HIV infected cases were 10.4% and 8.0% respectively. No significant difference was observed among gender and age group in CMV infection among HIV-positive cases.
A study of intestinal parasites in school children in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) was conducted. Before it was performed a comparative quantitative study of Faust's and Ritchie's techniques in order to optimize intestinal parasites diagnosis and to determine the techniques effectiveness. The Ritchie's technique resulted the most effective for the detection of both protozoan and helminthes, especially under conditions of low parasite burdens. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 65% and 71% in rural and urban areas respectively. Overall, the prevalence of protozoa that was found was higher than the one detected for helminths. The most frequent of the intestinal parasites was the protozoa Blastocystis hominis and the most frequent pathogenic protozoa were Giardia lamblia followed by Cyclospora cayetanensis. Among the helminths Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia saginata, Ascaris lumbricoides and Fasciola hepatica. Giardia lamblia showed notable differences between boys and girls in urban areas. To compare the prevalence of parasites in children with the same sex in different areas the differences were only found in boys infected by B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. nana. Multiple parasitism appeared in 29% of the samples presenting two, three or four parasites.
In this present paper the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder DI diesel is subjected to addition of diethyl ether by fumigation into the inlet manifold with bio ethanol blended diesel as pilot fuel were discussed. The optimum percentage of bio ethanol blended diesel was chosen by the previous research work carried out by the author. The results are indicated that when fumigated diethyl ether percentages increases, the performances of the engine increases by 30%, 29% and 43% respectively for 10%, 20% and 30%. The smoke density is decreased by 17%, 31% and 32% compared with pure diesel. The emission of Nox and CO were increased at high level loads, the HC emissions were increased for lower loads but small deviations were recorded for higher level loads when the diethyl ether percentages increases.
The concentrations of chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in Tamarindus indica plants growing on automobile contaminated sites (Dass Park and Mechanic village within Bauchi Metropolis were determined, in order to find out the phytoaccumulation potential of the plant for these metals. The weighted means of the various metals in the plant under investigation were observed to be higher than those obtained in the control site. The weighted mean of the metals in Dass Park was as follows: Cu (97.67mg/kg)> Zn (75.70mg/kg) > Mn (60.33 mg/kg) > (Pb 40.53 mg/kg) > Cr (3.52 mg/kg)> Cd (0.72 mg/kg). In Mechanic Village, a similar order was observed, with Cu (111.62 mg/kg)> Zn (64.93 mg/kg)> Mn (51.80 mg/kg)> Pb (48.77 mg/kg)> Cr (5.62 mg/kg)> Cd (2.34 mg/kg). The average concentration factors (CF) of the six elements in the Tamarindus indica studied at both contaminated sites were in the order: Cu (1.28)> Zn (0.38)> Mn (0.31)> Pb (0.27)> Cr (0.08)>Cd (0.06). Cadmium (Cd) has the highest translocation ratio, while Zn was observed to be the least. All the metals except Cd and Zn tend to accumulate mostly on the barks and roots of Tamarindus indica and this would therefore decrease their transfer probabilities to secondary consumers.
Since the ages plant has been playing a major role in the field of science. Especially the believes of tribes on some plants proved scientifically. These tribes got this medicinal knowledge of plants as a tradition. This study has made in Nalla mala forest, there are more than 6 tribal people living in different parts of the forest like palutla, Nekkanti Nadathadika, Chinthala gudams etc. I met the so called Dora, (Doctor) and collected 80% of medicinal plants. I also met another tribe chenchu leader who gave me another 20% of medicinal plants and their use I collated nearly 25 plants and 30 of their families. These, medicinal plants are very popular in near by towns. Most of the town people visit these gudams for medicines.
In recent years water stress is increased due to the scarcity of water. Water resources are characterized by a very high sensitivity to climatic vagaries, an irregularity in time and a bad spatial distribution and a vulnerability to drought and pollution. In most developing countries, there is often an infrastructure lack of drinking water supplies, especially in rural areas. The populations of these areas resort on archaic methods in order to have a continuous source of water for their own use. In Morocco, the traditional water storage tanks are a particular water supply system, known as « matfia ». In fact, it considered as one of the major drinking water supplies in rural areas, to ensure a resource more at least sufficient especially during drought. These tanks are fed from rainwater and/ or directly from surface water of rivers, and this water is generally consumed by the surrounding population without any treatment. The uncontrolled water storage in such reservoirs leads to a deterioration of their quality.
Salinity of soils and irrigation waters remains in the arid and semi arid ecosystems, a major obstacle to the development and growth of plants. This constraint on the legumes-rhizobia symbiosis occurs by an osmotic and/or ionic effect inhibiting various physiological and biochemical processes governing the growth of the host plant, the survival and proliferation of rhizobia and subsequently the inhibition of the infection process and the biological nitrogen fixation. The ability of plants to prevent and repair damages caused under saline conditions is associated with changes in many physiological and biochemical process including vacuolar sequestering of sodium ion, maintaining a high cytosolic K+/Na+ concentration ratio, accumulation of osmoprotector solutes, induction of an oxidative stress response and of plant hormones.
Oil was extracted from melon (Cucumis melo) seeds by solvent extraction method using n-haxane, LPE (light petroleum ether, b.p. 40-60 °C) and chloroform:methanol 50:50, v/v mixtures. The oil content of the melon seed oil was found to be 28.01%. The oil was characterized with various physical and chemical properties by standard methods and compared with those of standard oils or fats. Acid value (AV), Iodine value (IV), Peroxide value, Reichert-Meissl value (RMV), Thiocyanogen value (TV), Titre value etc. were determined and found that lightly changed due to variation of storage time. Acid value and Peroxide value were increased with the increasing of storage time but RMV, TV, IV, and Titre value were decreased, which indicates that the quality of the oil deteriorates with increasing time of storage. Fatty acid composition of the oil was determined by Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) and identified the presence of palmitic acid, stearic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid in the oil. The low acid value of oil indicates that it can be used in edible purpose. The de-oiled seed cake of melon seed was studied for the determination of ash content, protein, moisture content and minerals (N, P, K, and Ca) quantitatively. The microbial activities of the oil sample were investigated by standard methods.
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) will cover core systems such as Vehicle Tracking System, Real Time Passenger Information System and Central Control Station. Core technologies include Geographical Positioning System (GPS), Electronic Display Systems, and Information & Communication Technologies. ITS Solutions worldwide has been prominent in the development of efficient, transparent and environmental friendly public Transport solutions resulting in growth of economies and transport. Public transport generally occupies less road space and causes less pollution per passenger-km than personalized vehicles. Public transport is a more sustainable form of transport. Hence, local authorities should promote investments in public transport and make its use more attractive than personalized vehicles. With ITS improving the efficiency and management of transport across city, improved training and two way communication capability between driver and operations staff it is expected to reduce accidents with the use of incident management facility in ITS.
In this paper we present two different architectures for modulo 2n+1 adder and by using this an efficient FFT computation is performed. One of the architecture is based on a sparse carry computation unit in which only some of the carries are computed. In this an inverted circular idempotency property of the parallel prefix carry operator is used and its efficiency is increased by a new prefix operator. The resulting adders will be having less area and power. The second architecture is derived by modifying modulo 2n-1 adders with minor hardware overhead. By using this adder we can implement FFT processor with improved performance.
Nowadays digital images are widely used in our day to day life. Image forgery is the process of manipulation of an image to hide some meaningful information of the image. Today digital image forgery become easy due to the availiability of powerful computers, advanced photo editing softwares so that even ordinary users have more access to the digital doctoring tools than even before. The driving forces for the detection of forgered images are the need of authenticity and to maintain the integrity of the image. In this paper an automatic machine learning method for detecting the forgery due to image composition or splicing is considered. Here GLCM features and edge based features are extracted from the illuminant map of an image and 'then provide to a machine learning approach for obtaining the result. Here we use kNN classifier for classifying the image as whether it is original or forgered.
On August 8, 2014, the United Nations World Health Organization declared the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa an international public health emergency. The high level of poverty in the West African sub-region and the dearth of medical personnel couple with the inadequate medical equipment poses a serious challenge to the prevention, treatment and eradication of the virus. In curbing the spread, there have been calls for collective support for containment of the disease in the affected countries. The paper examined the spread of the Ebola Virus Disease and its implication in the West Africa sub-region. The correlation analysis revealed a strong positive association between the reported cases of new infections and fatalities suggesting that as the number of new infections increases so is the strong likelihood of the number of fatalities increasing. The Kruskal Wallist Test revealed a statistically significant difference in the reported cases of infections and fatalities across the months. The paper finds that the spread of the virus has effects on health, productivity of workers, social life, migration, and national economy. Efforts towards prevention have been acknowledged at the international, regional, and national level. The study, however, cannot be empirically generalized in the analytical term. There is the need for further study to know the remote cause of the virus, how it is transmitted, the impact on affected persons and the treatment in a holistic perspective. The paper recommends:strong political will, quick intervention and efficient case management; improvement in the medical infrastructure base; and widespread education.
The continued bombings, killings, kidnappings and the destruction of property by Boko Haram have become of great concern to the Nigerian government and the international community. The activities of Boko Haram have effects on the economy and the people. This paper examines the implications of the operations of the Boko Haram insurgency in the northeast of Nigeria. Findings from the study indicates that the atrocities of Boko Haram have severe implications on the economy and social lives of the people of the northeast where the activities of the sect is concentrated. The paper recommends for the insurgency to come to an end, the government needs to provide employment to the teeming youths, dialogue with the sect if the need arises and equip the military with sophisticated gadgets in order to confront Boko Haram foot soldier.
Political corruption has been blamed for the continued underdevelopment of Nigeria. Despite the creation of two anti-corruption agencies, corruption still strives in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of corruption on national development in Nigeria fourth republic. The study relied on secondary source of data collection. From the findings of this paper, corruption takes place in the executive and legislative arms of government. Furthermore, the study pinpoints how corruption by the political class hinder development in Nigeria. Finally, the study outlines some suggestions to prevent corruption in the government circle in order to move the country forward.
This research focuses on the study of the uses of TV and the potential for interactive TV services among the Indian users and operators. A survey and in-depth interviews were conducted as part of the study. The results show that TV, computer and mobile phone usage is high among the respondents. Concerning TV viewing habits, most do it in a collective manner. While watching TV viewers do other activities like working on computers, speaking with others and domestic work. Two thirds of the participants regularly recommend TV programs, but they do it in traditional ways, none mediated, since the iTV domain in the Indian market is still in its early stages. Regarding the expectations for upcoming iTV services, the majority of respondents are highly interested in having more interactive services for communication, recommendation; participation in shows/contests and a small percentage for shopping through the TV. There is a warm welcome for social interactive features in TV among the users and operators. The study has also confirmed that there is a good scope and market for ITV services.
The human eye is an organ which gives a sense of sight. Diabetic retinopathy is a most common diabetic eye disease which is a leading cause of blindness in India. Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease in which the retinal blood vessels swell and it may even leak. This damages the retina of the eye and may lead to vision loss if the level of diabetes is very high. Early diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy can prevent vision loss in patients. The method proposed in this paper for detection of Diabetic Retinopathy(DR) disease level emphasizes on determination of three important types of Diabetic Retinopathy; Macula Edema, Hemorrhages and Exudates. These types can be extracted using fundus images of patients and processing these fundus images through an appropriate image processing technique. Based on the presence of these types and their amount in the fundus image will determine the level of diabetic Retinopathy in patients.
The objective of this study is to develop statistical models to predict the depth limit stop of water drilling in crystalline and crystallophyllian rocks using physical parameters of drilling. The study was conducted using data from physical parameters (depth of drilling, depth of the first water supply significant, alteration thickness and thickness of base drilled) from geological units of Archean and Paleoproterozoïcal domains of Ivory Coast. The methodology consisted of first analyze the physical parameters from the simple statistical features and frequency class distribution of these parameters. Then, a normalized principal components analysis (NPCA) was applied for the identification of explanatory variables relevant and expressive of drilling depth limit. Finally, a calibration was performed with a sample of 1,605 wells representing two thirds of the total sample to determine the coefficients of the linear regressions and the associated standard errors. The analysis of the distribution of physical parameters of drilling shows that only the depth of drilling is homogeneous (24.50%) with an average of 68.17 m. The most relevant and expressive variables for predicting the depth limit stop of water drilling in crystalline and crystallophyllian rocks are the depth of the first significant water arrival and the thickness of alteration. The errors associated with the regression coefficients generally low (below 1%) reflect the close relationship between the dependent variables and the explanatory variables. Two models for predicting the depth limit stop of water drilling (PROLIFE models) in crystalline and crystallophyllian rocks were developed.
Now a day's Low Earth orbit satellite networks are used for IP based services. Satellite networks are required to support multimedia services. Delivering QoS guarantees to the users of LEO satellite networks is complicated since footprints of LEO satellites move as the satellites traverse their orbits, and thus, causing frequent user handovers between the satellites. In LEO satellite networks the traffic on the inter-satellite links (ISLs) also change with changes in the user-to-satellite traffic (which in turn changes due to the mobility of the satellites).Hence, traditional terrestrial routing protocols cannot be applied to broadband LEO satellite networks. To improve robustness and for load balancing in Low Earth orbit satellite networks a Cross-layer design and Ant-colony optimization based Load-balancing routing algorithm (CAL-LSN) is designed and implemented. CAL-LSN can utilize the information of the physical layer to make routing decision during the route construction phase. CAL-LSN uses mobile agents called ants for gathering the information of the nodes. ACO is well adapted to decentralized systems such as constellations of satellites because of the delays incurred by signalling information as it propagates through the network. Using CAL-LSN LEO satellite network performance is improved by balancing traffic load and increasing the packet delivery rate. Meanwhile, the end-to-end delay and delay jitter performance can meet the requirement of video transmission.
UNESCO being the lead agency for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) has continually reiterated that education remains the vehicle to achieving sustainable development. McKeown (2012) observed that proponents of sustainable development realize that there can be no sustainable development in the world if teachers are not trained in skills that enhance sustainable utilization of finite resources in the universe. This paper puts forth a proposition for the use of a conceptual approach of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) for the planning and design of curricula to ensure that educational opportunities in sustainable development are holistically and effectively provided to secondary school students. It addresses how the internal and external environments could influence the prospects of a school to address curriculum development and an implementation process in ESD. In addition, due to concerns of many researchers that any strategies pertaining to sustainable development should consider the surrounding environment and geographical location, this study addresses what such a 'localization' process would mean in practice through a case study of selected secondary schools in Kenya. Working from stated definitions of 'Sustainable Development' and 'Education for Sustainable Development,' the author developed a theoretical process for achieving curricular reform in secondary education. This paper explores current awareness and attitudes towards sustainable development; explores the inclusion of sustainable development in the secondary school curriculum and investigates possible barriers to incorporating sustainable development in secondary school curriculum. In-depth interviews and questionnaire tools are key in data collection for this study. Findings are presented descriptively in form of cumulative frequency counts and percentages. The study establishes that awareness levels of sustianble development among secondary school students are low and their attitudes negative. There are opportunities for inclusion of sustainable development in the secondary school curriculum albeit notable barriers; an already flooded secondary school curriculum as well as inadequate teachers required for implementing the curriculum. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to undertake a 'Phased Strategy' in order to systematically and holistically develop a curriculum in ESD in secondary schools. Universities need to start training teachers of Environmental Studies and that there is a critical need for a 'localization' strategy for a ESD curriculum development process in Kenyan secondary schools. Besides, UNESCO should focus more on ESD sensitization, public awareness and education through establishing a portal and creating caucuses which would map ESD implementation in universities.
In this age of globalization, the use of technology is advancing at an exponential rate and is taking root within many fields including education. The changed face of education predisposes pressure to the modern teacher due to a sense of knowledge and skills inadequacy. Apart from content and pedagogical knowledge, today's teacher requires knowledge, skills and expertise in the use of information communication technology (ICT) in order to enhance the instructional process. This calls for a deliberate paradigm shift in the manner in which the teacher is prepared and taken through various teacher professional development (TPD) programmes. Professional growth of a teacher is a life-long process of development beginning with pre-service training and climaxing in retirement. Theories of TPD show that teachers exhibit needs at different times in their professional lives. An analysis of these needs prompts a differentiated approach to their professional development. The teacher has to contend with various changes and therefore needs education in addition to initial pre-service training, thus the need for revitalized TPD programmes. Educationalist at all levels of learning must acknowledge and realize that the adoption, utilization and infusion of ICT in education is fundamental to effective teaching and consequently, successful learning. Teacher education as a component of education therefore requires to be revolutionized to suit the trends and needs of the modern society through the nature of training and professional development the teacher trainees and already practicing teachers are exposed to respectively. It is from this perspective that we do in this paper argue for the infusion of ICT into English language TPD processes, both at personal and institutional levels. This will enable the teachers of English in Kenya to operate within new and modern educational trends thus modelling life-long learning strategies that are closely linked to facets within facets of TPD. We do believe that the infusion of ICT into TPD will enable the skills and knowledge of the older teachers of English to evolve into a rich tapestry of knowledge that can only serve to create inclusive, richer and innovative teaching styles that will ultimately promote language learning among student.