In the process of building IPv6 transition network, three common methods of transition are used: double-stack technology, tunnel technology and address translation. Considering the condition that none of the above technologies can transverse NAT, this paper advances a new solution based on Client / Server technology. It summarizes the technological challenges and analyzes possible scenarios during the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, and proposes a new protocol based on tunnel technology which needs less equipment and it can greatly facilitate users. The result of the experiment shows it attains superior effect.
Weeds in our cultures are a constraint for farmers, which as far as possible combine a lot of effort to eradicate them. In addition to this aspect of nuisance, weeds could also be used for the prediction of soil fertility. Thus a floristic inventory study was conducted successively in 12 fields in the hinterland of Lubumbashi left on road 2axes: Kasumbalesa and Kipushi. Soil samples were collected in the forties randomly placed in the fields and then analyzed in the laboratory in order to identify the pH. The varied multi analyzes (PCA) have established a significant and positive correlation between the variables studied which would explain the invasion of the common bean culture despite the interventions of weeding. 24 species grouped into 7 families and 5 biological types including: therophytes 66.66%; Geophytes 12.5%; 8.33% hemicryptophytes, chamaephytes and finally Nanophanérophytes 4.16% proved tolerant of the pH tested (4.9 to 6.77) with (5.83) as an average value which allows farmers to have information not only in relation to different biological types defined but also on the distribution of weeds in relation to soil pH to ensure a good crop management by a successful weed management.
Infertility affects about 15% of couples seeking to achieve pregnancy. Many studies have objectified impaired semen quality in recent decades. Indeed, several items about the lifestyle and the environment are likely to act on male fertility. The objective of this study is to analyze these factors, it would be useful to know to allow proper prevention. This is a prospective study of 89 patients spermiograms HMIMV addressed to the microbiology laboratory for various reasons. Conducted over a period of 6 months from 01/10/11 to 01/03/12. Donated were seized and standardized Excel and SPSS exploited. 70.78% of our patients were referred in the balance sheet of more primary and secondary infertility. 66% of them had an abnormal semen analysis. The asthenospermia and oligoasthénospermie are the two main anomalies identified. We observed a higher rate of abnormal semen analyzes was associated with the following: - Age> 40 years. - A history of urogenital diseases. - Toxic habits. - Inadequate eating habits with excessive consumption of coffee, tea, preserves. This crude finding, made these potential male infertility factors. However, based on the statistical analysis of our sample of men studied, it turns out that this association was not significant. At the end of the study, and despite our negative statistical data, we conclude that we can create simple preventive measures to increase the chances of natural conception of a couple. In all cases it is sufficient to lead a healthy life to see her reproductive health improve.
In this paper, a new method (ASM-Method) of finding an optimal solution for transportation problems is implemented. The method finds an optimal solution without requiring an initial basic feasible solution. A numerical illustration of the method is implemented and the result obtained is compared with that of a designed LINGO computer program for transportation problems.The most attractive feature of this method is that it does not require complex arithmetic and logical calculations which makes it easy to understand and use. The method can be of good for decision makers who are dealing with problems of supply chains and inventory. The method can thus be adopted on existing transportation problems.
There is a growing interest in agriculture to replace synthetic chemicals with natural plant products that may have a bactericidal action. we have chosen two plant species to test their antibacterial effect against Xanthomonas fragariae Dw on tomato plants of the variety campbell 33, inoculated with this strain and two extracts pretreated with different concentrations (1%, 3% and 5%) are prepared from the leaves and stems of each species. We tested the one hand, the effect of these extracts on the removal or reduction of Xanthomonas fragariae Dw to the surface of the seeds, and secondly, their effects on growth parameters inoculated tomato plants. The effect of treatment of tomato seeds by the three concentrations of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L has given us a significant reduction compared to treatment with the extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Analysis of variance at the 5% threshold showed that six treatment plant extracts induced significant responses with degrees variants on vegetative and root biomass as well as the axial growth.
The present research project entitle, "Demographics and Cultural Patterns of Black Magicians in Bahawalpur Region" is aimed to analyze the demographics, social status, religious differences and beliefs of male Black magicians and to analyze the views of victims of black magic and the clients of black magicians. The sample was collected from different cities of south Punjab include 30 male black magicians, 20 victims and 20 clients of magicians by using "purposive sampling technique". "In-depth interviews" were taken by using "general guide Approach", "open ended questions" were asked. The data was analyzed through "Content analysis" it represents that the black magicians of different Religions have different views about black magic. They give different names to source or powers which performed black magic spells. But it is analyzed that the source is supernatural.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the difference of emotional intelligence on psychological well-being among 1st year medical students of public and private college and to see the correlation of emotional intelligence with psychological well-being. The sample consisted of one hundred and fifty (n=150) students (75 males and 75 females students) taken from two institutes of Multan. The scale of emotional intelligence and Ryff's psychological well-being scale were used to measure the level of emotional intelligence and psychological well-being among males and females students. Results showed the significant correlation of emotional intelligence with psychological well-being. The findings of results showed that the emotional intelligence and psychological well-being has significant difference on dimensions of psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery and personal growth) and has insignificant difference on three dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations, purpose in life and self- acceptance) among two age groups. The findings of the results further showed that the emotional intelligence and psychological well-being has significant difference on dimensions of psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery and personal growth) and has insignificant difference on three dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations, purpose in life and self-acceptance) among private and public college. When comparison made with the gender, findings of results showed that there is insignificant difference between emotional intelligence and dimensions of psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery and personal growth) and has significant difference on these three dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations, purpose in life and self-acceptance) among male and female students of private and public college.
The influence, in vitro, of nitrogen sources on growt, mycelium density and sporulation of moroccan isolates of M. grisea population has shown that the nitrogen substances tested have been used to various degrees by this parasite, thus allowing to differentiate betwen them. Results obtained with two synthetics aminoacids 2 -(4-méthyl phenyl) 2 - méthoxy ß-alanine methyl ester and 2 -(4-méthyl phenyl) 2 - éthoxy ß-alanine éthyle ester, show clearly that these products are less used than alanine. All the isolates, however, prefer nitric nitrogen to ammoniacal nitrogen.
The word itself has no sense and it can not be defined if we do not join many domains. To define the word Health for instance we need a doctor, a psychologue, a sociologue, an educator… and especially the concerned person who knows better himself. We generally go to the hospital when we feel bad. How can we manage this mishealthy knowing that the problem of language in communication is recurrent between two or more persons. The misunderstanding in communication is generally observed when we are in contact with persons who are different from our culture. It is very important for us to know their culture. In this case, we have to find a translator, then he plays an important role between the sick person and the doctor. This article will analyze the main problem of intercultural communication and will do suggestions to hospitals hope that the relation between persons from different culture will be ameliorate.
The world is a wide centre of conflicts. These conflicts are identified among human beings as well as among territories. The most common conflict on which this study focuses is characterized by confrontations involving two or several individuals. Interpersonal conflicts always arise when we think of conflictual interactions between individuals and societies. Language is both the source of and the solution to conflicts. If its influence becomes a central issue among powers and individuals, it is important or necessary to study language, as it has an impact on personality and culture and as it creates a legitimate and strong power. Thinking about language, culture and personality in the framework of redefined constraints leads to topics within the question of the reaffirmation of power: If the outcome changes with a loss of exclusive attributes of physical violence, their pertinence still remains. The fundamental problem of the role of language is however reactivated in the context of interpersonal conflicts to be studied in this thesis. Therefore, the study attempts to prove through different factors how conflicts arise and how they can be resolved.
The food value and the socio-economic importance of vegetables explain their increasing importance in urban agriculture at Lubumbashi. This research is preliminary study on the consumption of vegetables. Its objective is to compare the consumption of two types of cabbage, namely Chinese cabbage and head cabbage. To attain that goal, a survey was conducted between June and July 2014 among households of Congo district in the Rwashi commune (municipality), and in Kabecha district and Bel-air II in the Kampemba commune. The results reveal that for the majority (50%) of households surveyed, household size varies between 5 and 7 persons. For 60% of households, their monthly income varies between 100 and 200 US$. As for consumption, 73.5% of households consumed vegetables frequently (2 to 5 times per week). 73% of households had chosen Chinese cabbage because is cheaper than head cabbage and always available on market, whereas 27 % affirmed that head cabbage is the best for their consumption because is good for their health and smells good. However, 80% of households affirmed to prefer head cabbage to Chinese cabbage for its taste. These results constitute an incentive message to local farmers to orientate their production according to the preferences, needs and the appreciation of consumers. One limit of this study is that the sampling has not been wide so that its generalization can be inferred for all of Lubumbashi. Secondly, neither the quantity of cabbage consumed nor the parts of income allocated to purchase it have not been determined.
The marketing of vegetables makes it possible to distribute the incomes between all the actors intervening in the chains and constitutes a means of fighting against poverty and the food insecurity in urban area. This article aims to indicate the profitability and the constraints of the cabbage marketing in Lubumbashi. To arrive there, 30 sellers of cabbages were surveyed at the markets Radem, Rwashi and Congo. The studied parameters relate to the socio demography, the costs of acquisition of cabbages, the selling prices, the incomes, tax and the encountered difficulties. The results showed that there are more saleswomen with 93,3% and 86,7% respectively of cabbages of China and headed cabbages having experience more than five years. The total costs of marketing's relate to the acquisition of cabbages, transport and daily tax. For a quantity of 10 kg sold a day on retail, the incomes generated by cabbages of China and headed cabbages are of order of 3, 8 and 6, 8$ and the related benefits are 1, 2 and 2, 5$.It is the headed cabbage which proves to be more profitable but for the two types just like of other market garden produces, it is the absence of the means of transport, modern conservation and the structuring of the markets which constitute difficulties of their marketing in Lubumbashi. However the marketing of the market-gardening products comprises significant stakes related to the development of urban agriculture and the orientations of the truck farming channels.
The main objective of this study is to determine the levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) and Cadmium (Cd) translocated into the leaves of Amarante, cabbage and spinach grown on the soil of the river Lubumbashi, rich in metals trace elements (MTE). Mining (industrial and artisanal), movement of vehicles, increased metallurgical based activities, domestic and agricultural activities in the city of Lubumbashi remain the causes that contribute to entry, mobility and the transfer of MTE in Environmental compartments: water, soil, sediment and air. These have nowadays very high MTE contents, creating severe malfunctions for human life, plants, soil, aquatic beings. The results obtained showed that spinach has accumulated a significant part of all elements studied and analyzed in the shoots, he accumulated more Cu (T0: 15ppm and T1: 31ppm). These levels far exceed the threshold set at 10 ppm in food. He has accumulated a lot of Co (T0: 10ppm; T1: 12ppm) that Amarante (T0: 1.8ppm) and cabbage (T0: 2.3ppm). The CD shows an opposite situation on the ground of the experimental field (T0), it is found to 7.8ppm Amarante, 14ppm: Cabbage and 9ppm: spinach. Leaves of consumption (spinach, cabbage and Amarante), grown on the soil of the river Lubumbashi rich MTE and having accumulated a lot of ETM in their aerial parts (edible) could create risks of food poisoning on the human health.
This work deals with the phytochemical screening of Entada abyssinica and that of Rhoïcissus erythroïdes it also deals with the activity test against Escherichia coli, Schigella flexneri and Salmonella polyvalento. After a qualitative analysis, the activity test has been verified through the method of antibiogram discs. By the end of this work, we noticed that: - Entada abyssinica and Rhoïcissus erythroïdes present an affective antidiarrheic activity; - Rhoïcissus erythroïdes has shown a positive affect against Shigella flexneri whereas Entada abyssinica has proven to be more affective against Salmonella polyvalento. - The organic matters have manifested a better activity than aqueous matters. - The minimal concentration inhibition has been risen up to 10-3. The more dilution rises up, the less the matters are effective.
The axisymmetric stagnation flows towards a shrinking sheet of Newtonian fluids has been solved numerically by using SOR Iterative Procedure. The similarity transformations have been used to reduce the highly nonlinear partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. The results have been calculated on three different grid sizes to check the accuracy of the results. The problem relates to the axisymmetric stagnation flows towards a shrinking sheet when α < 0 and if α > 0 the axisymmetric stagnation flows towards a stretching sheet. The numerical results for Newtonian fluids are found in good agreement with those obtained previously.
Professional integration which is a powerful lever for the autonomy of young people is becoming increasingly difficult because of unemployment. The latter is explained by the economic crisis, job insecurity or the segmentation of labour among others. The recent and painful "Arab spring" came as a supplement to signify ill being of a young population in lack of pointers to their employability. We thought appropriate to consider the threshold of the need for social esteem in the Cameroonian context, where statistics show a high rate of unemployment. We are particularly interested in job-seekers registered with the National Employment Fund of Douala-Bali. This study has as focus the level of agreement they have with regard to the choice of a strategy to facilitate their integration into the labour market in Cameroon in general and Douala in particular. A sample of 120 subjects was obtained from the criterion of detention, at least, of the 'Baccalauréat' which is the first academic degree. A questionnaire developed by us on the basis of the inventory of self-esteem of Bouvard et al. (2003) has been administered. A scale has been developed to assess self-esteem in social situations. The results obtained following an analysis of the correlations of the different variables show on one hand that job seekers need a strong self-esteem in a situation of quest for insertion. In addition, the more the need for esteem varies, the more the strategy differs from those formal to those so-called informal.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cereal crop grown throughout the world. Invasion of maize grains by fungi leads to losses in quantity and quality. The objective of the current study was to assess the diversity of fungi associated with stored maize grains under storage conditions of farmers in Shashemene and Arsi Nagelle districts. Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect maize grains from the study sites of Arsi Nagelle and Shashemene districts. Two peasant associations (PAs) from each district and 10 HHs from each of the PAs, with a total of 40 HHs were purposively drawn for sample collection. A 2% MEA and PDA plates were used for the isolation of fungi associated with the collected maize grains. Identification of the isolates to the genus level was performed on the basis of culture characteristics and spore morphology. A total of 767 fungal isolates belonging to ten genera and four unidentified taxa were obtained. Out of which 430 (56.06%) were from Shashemene and 337(43.94%) were from Arsi Nagelle. In general comparison, higher isolation rate (IR) was found at Shashemene than Arsi Nagelle. While, in case of Arsi Nagelle districts higher number of fungal isolates was at Ali Wayo 172 (22.43%) than Adaba Tita 165 (21.52%). Aspergillus spp. was the dominant that were represented by 284(37.027%) isolates from all sites. Penicillium was the second most frequently encountered genus where 196(25.55%) isolates was recovered from all sites. It was concluded that stored maize grain from the study areas could be contaminated by storage fungi and therefore, awareness creation and training should be given to the farmers on better and improved storage techniques.
L'objectif de cet article est de montrer que l'éducation contribue à la croissance économique, c'est-à-dire qu'il existe un lien entre les variables de l'éducation et la croissance économique. Il se base sur les affirmations des théories du capital humain et de la croissance endogène pour défendre l'investissement en éducation en tant que moyen pour le développement des pays de l'OCDE. Il existe plusieurs études qui se sont intéressées à la relation entre l'éducation et la croissance économique du point de vue microéconomique, tout comme macroéconomique, tant sur le plan théorique qu'empirique. Les études empiriques qui ont été faites un peu partout à travers le monde, ne s'accordent pas sur le fait que l'éducation a un effet positif sur la croissance économique. Cette ambiguïté nous a amené à participer au débat en testant l'effet et l'efficacité de l'éducation sur la Produit Intérieur Brut (PIB). Afin de clarifier notre démarche, nous essayons de mesurer le lien entre l'éducation et la croissance économique à l'aide d'un panel de données dynamique qui constitue les pays de l'OCDE durant la période 1995-2012. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'éducation exerce un impact positif et significatif sur la croissance économique.
The banking sector is becoming more competitive in recent times. Customers are the most significant factor and quality customer service is tool for surviving these competitions. Banks invest in Information Communication Technology and introduce new innovations with the aim of serving the existing customers better and attracting new customers. This study aims to evaluate the effects of Information Communication Technology on Quality Customer Service Delivery in the commercial banks. A multi-stage sampling was used to survey a sample of 476 customers from the selected banks. The analysis revealed that Information Communication Technology has positive effects on quality customers' service delivery in the banking sector. Information Communication Technology has enabled customers to access their accounts at any location at any time, know the transactions that affect the customer accounts through the transaction notification service subscribed by the customer. The study also revealed that Automatic Teller Machine is the most used delivery channel by customers. Challenges face by the banks in delivering service with information communication technology included the low information communication technology, literacy level of customers, high cost of providing security for data, fraudsters and hackers, and inadequate information communication technology professionals. It was recommended that banks should educate and intensify the campaign on the use of both old and new electronic delivery channels, ensure constant availability of banking services delivered through these channels.
A new generation of industrial electrical furnace has been developed during the last 25-30 years. Present practices followed in electrical furnace are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review accounts of various practices present being followed in steel industries using electrical furnace has been carried out in few industries in India. The Furnace control which is the most important part of any steel plant. Microcontroller is also used measure furnace temperature by using sensor (PT100). In Automate a steel plant we can monitor the furnace temperature and minimize human intervention. Steel plants require continuous monitoring and inspection at frequent intervals. The objective of the proposed work is to develop steel plant. We can continue monitor the furnace and observe/see the overview of the system seen on the PC. In our project we can also work properly billet cutting billet cutting of metal rod are properly.
Public Private Partnerships have been implemented in India to help improve the performance of the public health sector. The experiences of implementation have been a mixed bag with some successes. There have been concerns during implementation about the designs not accounting for disparate motivations, ambiguous roles and risks to partners that affect the management, sustainability and ultimately the services. A study was conducted to understand the designs of three Public Private Partnerships addressing reproductive health needs of women at primary and secondary health care level in rural Gujarat. These partnerships were with a corporate body, a Non-Government Organisation and with private empanelled gynaecologists respectively. Review of data and relevant documents from the government and private partners and in-depth interviews with select key informants were conducted. The Government of Gujarat has drafted elaborate conceptual framework and guidelines for Public Private Partnership. Yet, the non-competitive selection of partners, conflict of interest, lack of commitment and attention to standards of care and insufficient monitoring and accountability mechanisms all point towards weaknesses in design of these models. Implementation without fidelity to the purpose and design of the PPP and un-addressed risks to partners make these partnerships vulnerable to exploitation and un-sustainable in the original format. The study highlights the need for thorough review of partners and evaluation of existing models to ensure that the potential benefits of PPPs are not frittered away at the altar of weak designs and lack of monitoring.
Innumerable patients visit hospitals everyday around the world. For emergency cases and most inpatient services, especially those involving surgical procedures, patients are frequently shifted between rooms and beds. Most common transfer is that between stretcher and patient rest bed. In many hospitals, this is carried out by the unskilled staff who does the job physically. They either lift or drag patients as a part of shifting them from one bed/stretcher to another. This procedure is not only inconvenient to the patient but also poses work related hazard for the employees. In order to facilitate the hospital worker and at the same time increase the comfort levels of the patient, this procedure needs to be made mechanical. The present article describes a new methodology that involves transferring patients between rest units with no/minimum physical contact. The physical burden of employees is mostly relieved by means of this process. Unlike other methods that usually require development of an entirely new set, the present design is a modification of the existing rest units such as beds, stretcher and mattresses. The design involves welding steel frames to the existing units and making use of rollers to accomplish the job. The new set up drastically reduces the physical burden for the hospital staff and also comforts patients without aggravating their pain.
The integration of well log analysis with subsurface mapping using 3-D seismic interpretation has been identified to be the key component for hydrocarbon exploration and evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoir potentials. Therefore, this research work was aimed at estimating reserves of hydrocarbon bearing sands in X-Field, Niger Delta with the specific objective of evaluating petrophysical parameters and predicting new prospects. Delineated sand units, A, B, and C are characterized by hydrocarbon saturations ranging from 74.3 % to 91 %. From these horizons three major faults were mapped for the purpose of carrying out 3-D subsurface structural interpretation. These were used in generating the time structure maps using the Petrel interpretational tool. The growth faults and the subtle small throw faults concentrated on the field, and occurring across an anticlinal structure can be significant in the creation of multiple reservoir traps and are therefore the ultimate targets in well positioning. The results show that the trapping mechanisms and the obtained Petrophysical parameters in this field are favourable for hydrocarbon accumulation. Hydrocarbon in-place was calculated from the obtained seismic and petrophysical parameters in order to unveil the potentials of the reservoirs. Hydrocarbon in-place for Sand A was estimated to be 98050473.93STB of oil.
Emotional Intelligence is a key factor which affect Academic Achievement of the students. This study intended to analyse the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Academic Achievement (AA) of students at postgraduate level in Public Sector Universities of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Information about the research participants was taken through questionnaires. Pearson Correlation was applied. Data was analysed statistically and interpreted in the form of tables and charts. The results showd that there was significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of postgraduate students. The study have far-reaching implications for teachers, students, administrators, policy makers and curriculum planners. Awareness of knowledge about the effects of emotional intelligence on academic results of students was a great impact of this study. Institutionalization of a formalized emotional training and counselling program for students is another major recommendation of the study.
Every country that is industrialized today passed through agrarian era. In fact, agricultural sector still remains the backbone of the industrial sector. In most developing nations, foreign trade is very central to all facets of economic growth and development which include agriculture. In view of this, the study examined the impact of foreign trade on the growth of agricultural output. In the process, other determinant was also examined. This includes population growth. The study used annual time series data from 1978 to 2008, obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and Newey-West standard error regression model were used to analyse the data. The correlation analysis showed that there is existence of strong relationship between the variables. Results also revealed that petroleum export, food import and population growth rate were the significant factors that influence the growth of agricultural output in Nigeria. The growth of agricultural output was significantly increased by petroleum export and population growth rate but was reduced by food import. It is recommended that the government should introduce suitable foreign food and non-food trade policies and programmes that will positively impact the growth of agricultural output in Nigeria.
In order to enhance the medicinal plants of our region and in terms of their impact on health by their profusion substances with antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties, a quantitative comparative study of total phenols and flavonoids, anthocyanidins and flavonoid aglycones as well as scavenger effect the DPPH● seeds of two plants used in breast cancer treatment in Benin was performed. The results, it appears that Garcinia kola is rich in phenolic compounds Cucumeropsis edulis. The ethanol extract of Garcinia kola manifest a higher radical scavenging activity than ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Overall, there is a correlation between anti-radical powers and phenolic contents phytoconstituents (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins) extracts of the plants studied.