Human body organs and tissue have different values of density. The nature of interaction between radiation and organs is not the same due to differences in density of medium, and energy and type of radiation. Low density medium has high range of energetic radiation inside the medium with low values of mass attenuation coefficient. Treatment plan considers the densities of human tissues and organs like water density, so readings of predicted doses inside body have no accurate outputs. The use of real dosimetry inside human heterogeneous phantom gives answers of these differences. TLD-100H has high sensitivity for radiation doses than other TLD types and can be reused but it cannot keep signals after annealing procedures to get one signal by the use of Harshaw® TLD reader.
The objective of the paper was to establish the gaps influencing implementation of the Kenyan Witness Protection system. The study sought to achieve the following specific objectives: To establish the staffing capacity in the within protection program in Kenya; to examine the level of financial investment by the National government to the witness protection program; and to investigate the level of technological investment in witness protection program in Kenya. Data was collected from select key informants drawn from the Attorney General office, the Law Society of Kenya, The Director of Public Prosecution (DPP), the Kenya Police, The Ministry of Gender (Children's Department), Directorate of Witness Protection Agency, the Children's Court, and the representatives from the National Assembly. The findings of the study were expected to manifest how implementation of the witness protection programme in Kenya is influenced by both human and infrastructural capacity aspects. The findings of the study showed that there is lack of training resources such as facilities, training institutions and trainers. There are also limited financial resources to support the program attributed to poor funding and high cost of the program. The study found that there are poor infrastructural facilities to reach the witnesses.
This paper attempts to define the place of the family nowadays with the expansion of digital social networks and associative movements in Cameroon. The interest of the study is to analyze the motivations and the reasons why individuals interact and join networks of solidarity outside their clan and family. We found that, issues of economic survival, social recognition, positioning and individual and collective affirmation in Cameroonian society are at the heart of emulation to new solidarity schemes. However, the family remains a bedrock to where people come back when the new forms of solidarities fail.
Aromatic and medicinal plants are a source of biologically active secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. These substances have many biological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ones. The aim of our work is to valorize two aromatic and medicinal plants growing wild in Moroccan Eastern High Atlas through quantifying phenolic compounds of both species and evaluation of extracts' antioxidant activity. These species are Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus satureioides Both plants were subjected to a phytochemical screening to highlight their secondary metabolites' qualitative composition. This analysis shows the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes, free anthraquinones and catechols. But alkaloids, carotenoids and reducing compounds were not observed. Total polyphenols extraction was made by maceration in methanol 80%. Yields were approximately 13.06% and 11.66% for Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus satureioides. Then, methanol's crude extract was fractionated using successively three organic solvents of various polarities: chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Polyphenol dosage with Folin Ciocalteu's reagent showed that ethyl acetate fractions of both species Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus satureioides, are more rich in phenolics than the other fractions. Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate extracts by DPPH test were quantified by spectrophotometry and 50% inhibitory concentrations' values (IC50) were determined graphically. They were equal to 103,86μg / ml and 109,98μg / ml for Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus satureioides respectively. The concentration 52,5μg / ml was obtained for ascorbic acid used as a reference. In this present study, fractionation method with solvents used in polyphenols'extraction indicates phenolics richness of both species. These substances have an important antioxidant power.
Thirty samples of raw milk intended for processing, were analyzed during the period of high lactation. The results of the physico-chemical characteristics similar standards, only the fat content is relatively low, with an average of 30,9 g/L. Microbiological analysis included nine microbial groups: hygiene indicators among groups (total flora, psychrotrophic flora, heat-resistant flora and coliforms) and some potentially pathogenic groups (coagulase-positive Staphylococci, Salmonella and Escherichia coli). The enumeration of mesophilic aerobic total flora, psychrotrophic and heat resistant serves to underline the high contamination of the samples analyzed with respective averages of 28,8.106CFU/mL 12,3.105CFU/mL and 44,2.104 CFU/mL. Milk samples are also contaminated with total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci with respective average rates of 50,3.105CFU/mL 36,7.104CFU/mL and 55,4.105CFU/mL. The E.coli germ is present in 64% of the analyzed milks. The presence of pathogens is largely attributed to Staphylococci averaging 37,5.102CFU/mL, 80% of strains were coagulase positive. In contrast, all samples are free of Salmonella. In view of the Algerian standards, the hygienic quality of all samples analyzed milks, is bad.
Everyone is aware of space and place, of change over time and since everything exists in space and time, population is not an exception. This paper examines the influences of time on population growth and space. The study adopts both descriptive and quantitative statics and relied on secondary data source as a major means of data collection. The findings reveal that there is positive relationship between population growth and time and population density varies from area to area within the state. The practical implication of this study is that it provides an answer to whether population varies over time and space. Over the years Ondo state has witnessed increase in population. The implication of this increase in population in relation to space is overpopulation resulting to congestion in areas that are densely populated.
The main objective of this research is to measure the performance of a web application in terms of the perceived user experience. The study was done to determine the number of users a web page can support before recording an error. Different scenarios were used to demonstrate how the web page would respond under normal load and under peak load. The virtual campus "Moodle" was used for this demonstration. Two computers, one working as a server hosting a XAMPP as a web server and Moodle as web platform and the other working as client with Apache JMeter tool that measured the capacity and capacity test were used. The load testing started with a small number of virtual users and then, the load was increased to normal peak. From this, it was possible to observe how the application performed during this gradually increasing load conditions. In this experiment when there were 125 concurrent connections, the system recorded some errors. At the end of the research, some of the conclusions arrived at on the possible ways of ensuring maximum operation of web applications, were to increase the number of sockets in the server so that, it would increase the number of requests/responses and to reconfigure the httpd. mpm file of the Apache web server to allow more concurrent users.
To determine the prevalence of related-home injuries among children who were admitted for at least 24 hours in the surgical pediatric emergencies department, in the Children's hospital of Rabat, Morocco. Methods: a transversal retrospective study about children with home-related injuries carried out between January 1 and June 30, 2014. Indicators included: age, gender, cause, month, lesions, duration and location of hospital staying, surgery and evolution. The data entered on Excel and analyzed by SPSS 13. Results: 761 files from 900 hospitalizations were studied. Male were 75% and the median of age was 8 years 3years; 13 years. The leading causes of non-fatal injuries were falls, cut or piercing and burns. The lesions were head injuries (154 cases), fractures (433 cases), gate fingers (61 patients), burns (52 cases) and bipolar trauma (28 patients). Length of stay is 24 hours in 74.8%. The majority of patients was hospitalized in the emergency department and received nonoperative treatment with a simple evolution (respectively 96.1%, 73.1% and 90.6%). Conclusion: home related injuries deserve to be taken seriously.
Globally, each year around 16 million girls aged 15-19 give birth, accounting for around 11 percent of all births. The main advantages of this study were to identify predictors of teenage birth and examine the trend of teenage birth based on data from the three Ethiopian Demographic Surveys (EDHS). Discrete-time hazard modeling was used to estimate the hazard of first birth before age 20 after controlling the effects of socio-economic factors. The results suggested that the overall likelihood of first birth before age 20 among Ethiopia women increased slightly over time in the three EDH surveys. At the individual level, women's education, especially secondary and higher educational level, had the strongest effect to delay first birth during adolescence in the three surveys. Residing in urban areas was also inversely associated with teenage birth. Having media exposure has a significant delaying influence, but the effect was low in the 2011 EDHS data. These findings reinforce our understanding that the government should continue its efforts to promote female education, especially higher education.
In the framework of a general program to develop the production of the pigeon flesh in Morocco, we carried out in our laboratory a specific study on the bacterial risk contaminations of two local pigeon races called Beldi and Mgandi; in addition to a spanish race named Sevillanos. In fact, as the most poultry species, pigeons are characterized by their small size, an ease in manipulation on the farm and slaughtering, necessitating simpler devices for experiments. The latter has for objectives the genetic selection and the comparison of food systems of farm breeding methods. The results of the various analysis and the comparison of the averages show an important contamination of the visceral organs by different germs. This study shows that the local races are characterized by their resistance to colliforms, staphylococcus and streptococus. If the months with high temperature remain a favourable periode for the developpement of the faecal germs, the wintry months, however, are characterized by a high rate of mortality among pigeons. Besides, the female pigeons remain more exposed to the contaminations by most of the studied germs.
In this study, the behavior of Xanthomonas fragariae, angular leaf spot of strawberry agent, was followed in the AB medium, enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus or with potassium, and in the soil of the Mamora forest with 14% to 28% of humidity in function of these fertilizer elements. The obtained results have shown that Na2HPO4 and NH4Cl, used, 0.01 and 0.05 mol/L, respectively as a phosphorus and nitrogen source, have a significant effect on the survival of Xanthomonas fragariae. By contrast, KCl, used as a source of Potassium, has no significant effect on the number of culturable cells. The three sources used NPK, 14% and 28% showed a great influence on the number of culturable cells of Xanthomonas fragariae, either increasing or decreasing. Potassium, at 28 to 14% of humidity, inhibited the rate growth of Xanthomonas, while the phosphorus and nitrogen stimulated its growth, greater than 28% of humidity than 14%. Similarly the bacterial growth was not affected during the incorporation of NPK at different concentrations in the soil of Mamora.
This work concerns to the digital treatment of the problems with strong not linearities during the resolution of the equations of Navier-Stokes in particular those due to the recirculation strong in turbulent regime. The idea developed is to use the method of subdomains: The domain in which took place the flow is decomposed several subdomains separated by imaginary boundary. In each of these subdomains, we use the best adapted digital method. The passage in all the domain is made by digital connecting. This connecting is made by covering of domain. The results are presented in the case of a jet of rejection emitted by the bottom in a rectangular canal. In this application, we divided the domain of study into two parts: Near the boundary layer, we use the finished difference method and in the outside zone the resolution is made by the method Particular. The fictitious interface between these two subdomains is processed by the method particles - meshing. A validation of this approach is made by a comparison with a direct calculation in all the domain.
Online communities are seen as valuable knowledge source about customers' needs and interests. Innovation research also tries to analyze content from online communities to detect signals for future innovations. Within this contribution the theory of signals for future developments, existing approaches are introduced. Building upon this introduction, we describe the Austrian research project "Innovation Signals" that aims to develop and implement a technology-enhanced analysis of signals for future developments by analyzing user-generated content from selected online communities. Besides automatic data extraction and statistics the approach tries to make sense through structured content analysis. Therefore, the approach combined so-called qualitative research with quantitative research, as well as automatic monitoring and analysis with manual social research. Part of this research project was the identification of innovation signals for three companies from different fields/branches (sport, energy, and mobility). Within this contribution we describe and reflect on our experiences within these settings and on additional findings based on the project. These are guidelines for social media mining and a comparison of existing approaches of technology-usages for weak signal detection. The authors also discuss practical implications derived from their experiences, as well as future opportunities for further research.
This paper aimed to validate the experimental result of reverberation time using balloon burst method with the model (sabine equation) using AcMus software. The experimental procedure utilized dynamic microphone as the receiver, balloon as the sound source and AUDACITY software to record and analyze the impulse created upon popping the balloon. Balloon Burst method has a reverberation time value of 1.28s while the AcMus software gave a reverberation time value of 1.33s. The percent error was calculated and showed a 3.76% error. Hence, the balloon burst method can be used to determine the reverberation time of a classroom also, it can be utilized as instructional materials in science classes.
The main aim of the study was to analyze the extent to which teachers were incorporating Individual Education Program (IEP) in teaching science subjects. The study was guided by Felder Silverman Dimension Model theory to science learning. Descriptive Case study design was used. The study was conducted at Rev. Muhoro Secondary School for the Deaf inMukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya. The target population of study comprised of; Principal, teachers and students of Rev. Muhoro Secondary School for the Deaf. The Principal, teachers who took part in the study were sampled purposively while students were sampled along stratus. The sample size of the study involved one principal, seven science teachers and forty eight students. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires, interview and lesson observation. It was then analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study revealed that, even though most teachers maintained high academic aspirations in class many of them had little understanding on the planning and implementation of IEP in class. It was therefore commended that, there was need for re-training of teachers on how to plan and use IEP in class. It was further stressed that, only teachers who had trained in Special Needs Education recruited to teach in schools for the deaf and that inspectorate services should be enhanced to ensure that teachers were using IEP in their teaching.
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of classroom communication on academic performance of learners with hearing impairment. A case of Kambui School for the Deaf, Kiambu County-Kenya. The specific objective was to establish whether the classroom environment was supportive to effective classroom communication for learners with hearing impairment. The study was guided by the Holcomb's 1967 Total Communication Theory. It adopted descriptive case study design. The respondents were the head teacher, ten teachers and sixty learners, giving a total sample of 71 participants (n – 71). Data was corrected by the use of interviews, questionnaires and observations. A combination of content analysis and thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Research findings indicated that, classroom environment was not supportive to effective classroom communication. To support improved academic outcomes of learners with hearing impairment, it is important that their direct experiences in the classroom is understood. The school had large class sizes which affected teacher learner interaction. It was noted that, there was inadequate teaching and learning materials. In order to improve academic performance accommodations such as small class sizes, spacious classroom, well ventilation, a good lighting and noise management need to be observed.
Data is a vital asset of an organization and every organization tries its best to store large amount of data. Important decisions are made on the base of stored data. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad is the popular university of the Pakistan. UAF is using Oracle database to store the university employees and students record. This database can store data upto Gbs. Data in this database cannot be analyzed to find hidden information or patterns mean ad hoc queries are not supported. Only few tens of records can be accessed at the same time. Data warehouse stores very large amount of historical data. It stores data up to Tbs. Millions of records can be accessed at the same time. Different data mining techniques explore data warehouse to find hidden patterns and determines what was happening, what is happening and what will happen. Data warehouse supports ad hoc queries. Organizations can make proactive and knowledge driven decisions for more profit and improvements in business. We proposed a framework of Data warehouse for the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. This Data warehouse stores the large data of teachers of UAF. This data is analyzed for evaluating the teachers performance. This data is used by data warehouse to make prediction about teachers. This warehouse helps not only to administration but also to teachers about their performance and weaknesses.
Geomagnetic indices are used to measure the intensity of geomagnetic storms. In the study of solar terrestrial relationship the use of indices of geo magnetic activity plays an important role. The aim of this work is to compare the linear relationship between geomagnetic indices at quiet and disturbed period when ap <26nTand ap > 26nT for solar maximum in the year (2001). Auroral indices obtained from the omni-web are compared for the geomagnetic disturbance of different intensities. Three hourly average values of the Dst, ap, AE and Bz indices have been studied for one year of high solar activity (2001) during quiet and disturbed period. Thus, the correlations of geomagnetic indices were determined by plotting graphs of the indices against one another. The study reveals that the annual correlation coefficient of AE×ap is 72.3% for quiet period, which is the highest correlation. Also, the coefficient of Dst ×Bz is 7.94% for quiet period, which is the least correlation. For the monthly correlation, the correlation coefficient of AE× Bz in the month of May is 84.9% for disturbed period, which is the highest correlation. Also, the correlation coefficient of ap× Dst in the month of January is 1% for disturbed period, which is the least correlation. For both annual and monthly coefficient, the correlation coefficient of AE × ap (3-hourly values) for quiet period is in general the highest of all, followed by AE × Bz for disturbed and quiet period. Thus, ap is strongly influenced by AE activity or ap is the major factor that determines the auroral activity. It is observed that when Bz has values within -10nT and lower the auroral activities (AE) increases and gives a better correlation relatively to other geomagnetic indices. Also, it is observed that there was intense (or strong) storm in the months of April and October for both disturbed and quiet period. Thus, these months (April and October) could be seen as a critical months which must be given a special attention for consideration in the further studies.
The discovery of oil reserves in the Turkana Rift basin, could possibly multiply government revenue. These findings signify a major possible change in the country's position considering the fact that it is one of the low incomes, aid dependent countries in the Sub Saharan region. However, the commercial exploitation of this resource also presents the country with formidable environmental and social challenges due to weak institutions, lack of public participation, poor communication, unskilled labor in the oil industry, absence of crucial policies, poor organizational structures and governance system, indicators that continue to affect all activities leading to unsustainable actions at both the national and community levels. This could give birth to more disastrous results like civil strife, sabotage of oil dealing and the resource curse phenomenon. The paper focuses on aspects of long term sustainable actions which require engagement of all actors, dissemination of information among others driven by all the four sustainability domains (political, economic, ecological and cultural pillars) to prevent potential negative impacts on the country's socio-economic development. This involves comprehensive environmental and social baseline and impact assessment studies, best practice in environment management for effective impact reduction and mitigation, effective environment monitoring, intensive coordination with County government and socialization to local communities to obtain legal and public approval, acceptance, and support for the operation from the very beginning phase of the operations of planning until after the completion of the operations.
The environmental and geochemical studies at Enyigba Pb-Zn mining district near Abakaliki South eastern Nigeria were undertaken to characterize the distribution of mobile heavy metals in rocks. A total of twenty-one (21) samples were collected from rock samples in the area. The distribution and determination of total concentration were estimated. The geochemical studies include sampling, partial leach test and chemical analysis for As, Cd, Ca, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn using UV-Spectrophotometer. The result revealed high concentration of some of the metals in the sampled media with decreasing concentrations with distance from known Pb/Zn mining sites for mostly Cd, Pb, As, and Ni. Their potential distribution and environmental risk were evaluated using enrichment and contamination factor. Indices of geoaccumulation, contamination and metal enrichment showed generally high values for Cd, As, Pb and Cu. compared with permissible limits and standard. Generally the concentration is in order: Cd > Pb > Cu > As > Co > Zn > Zn; for rock samples. Compared to permissible limits, the degree of enrichment is very high for Cd and moderate for Pb, and Cu in the rocks samples. Also the calculated contamination factor shows low to very high contamination status. These levels of contamination and values indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria, the mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to soil and water sources.
Comparison of various packing's on the basis of their materials using two different solute gases, CO2 and O2, is being presented. Calculations were done on the liquid side and height of transfer units as well as number of transfer units obtained for various flow rates. The result shows superiority of steel Raschig rings over ceramic, glass and plastic rings. Results were analyzed considering material properties such as wettability, surface area offered per square inch, packing factor and voidage. The operating conditions were Temperature = 25°C and Pressure = 1atm. The values of effective interfacial area offered by Raschig rings of different materials vary to some extent. Steel rings hold sway over ceramic rings but the difference is not much. Glass rings and plastic rings come third and fourth respectively and are way behind in perform- mince. The high density of ceramic Ranching rings and steel rings provides each ring with high me- chemical strength and can thus be stacked in larger quantities within your column to further boost the required process. In Ranching rings ceramic is a bet- term option than plastic or metals due to high tolerance levels against high heat and strong acids.
Results of removal of dyes from textile waste water using adsorption by activated carbon of rice husk are being presented. This research work is based on case study of waste water treatment plant of koh-e-noor textile industry located in Pakistan. Dyes used in research were Congo red and Magenta. Two parameters (agitation time and adsorbent dose) were selected to investigate the % age removal of dyes. Both of the dyes selected are hygienic, cause skin irritation and allergic dermatitis. It was found that the %age removal of both dyes increased as agitation time and adsorbent dose increased. The %age removal of Congo red was 88% and magenta was 85% by different agitation time, while in case of different adsorbent dose, the % age removal of Congo-red was 69.3% and magenta was 95.3%. It was observed that both of these dyes can be removed by activated carbon of rice husk. These results showed that adsorption by activated carbon of rice husk is a good economical method for the removal of dyes.
The use of graphical representation as reasoning tool in transferring content knowledge through source processing was explored in this study. Studies established that students competency in graphical representation is essential part of learning. The study investigated the parameters under which beginning physics students use graphs as a tool in mediating a content area (mathematics) into another (physics). One hundred fifty-six students were given kinematics problems. One set of problems required the active use of graphical representations, while the other set of problem does not require active construction of graph, this referred to as passive graphical representation. To control for transfer effect of established knowledge, pure text problems were also administered. ANOVA was used to determine if there is a significant difference in the mean scores of the students in the three activities. Furthermore, students were given achievement tests. The scores from these two tests were correlated. In general, the results showed that active representation of graph is powerful tool in problem solving skills of students. I addition to that, the finding showed that the used of graph in the instructions improve students' competency in graphical representation.
Salinity stress is the major constraint in rice production. Selection for salinity tolerance genotypes of rice based on phenotypic performance alone is less reliable and will delay in progress in breeding. Recent advent of molecular markers, microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to find out salt tolerant rice genotypes. In this study three selected SSR markers viz. RM336, RM510 and RM3412 were used to screen the germplasm for salt tolerance. For genotyping rice germplasm, DNA was extracted from leaf samples using CTAB mini-prep method. The number of allele per locus was 10, with an average number of 10 per locus. The average gene diversity of overall SSR loci for the 25 genotypes was 0.8693, ranging from 0.8608 to 0.8768. The PIC values for 3 SSR markers varied from 0.8456 (RM336) to 0.8645 (RM510) with an average PIC of 0.8556. Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) dendrogram, constructed from Nei's genetic distance produced three distinct clusters of 25 rice genotypes which is very much similar to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It can be concluded that Jamai naru, Kajol shail, Hogla, Khak shail, Tal mugur, BINA dhan8 were salt tolerant compared to FL 478 because they showed a lower similarity value with FL 478. Marker RM510 showed the highest level of diversity due to high PIC value. This scientific information could be used for selection of suitable parents and development of salt tolerant rice varieties as well.
Language management in Cameroon and its challenges for the Cameroonian school is an always topical subject, more than fifty years after reunification. The formalization of French and English helped relegate local languages to a domestic role. What has caused the death of several of them. To preserve the national heritage, and promote these languages, the Government has decided to introduce them into education. The words of this article, built from the perspective of linguistic development and which is essentially based on field investigations and a multidisciplinary approach, is to analyze the implications of the teaching of the national languages in school, under the perception that children have of the languages of their environment. On the one hand, the results obtained show that representations and family attitudes towards native languages have consequences on representations and attitudes of students towards these languages, and their level of proficiency in these languages; On the other hand, students place great importance to the status of languages. It thus follows the need to legitimize the relationship with these native languages to promote the success of such an undertaking.