Cobalt Manganese Ferrite nanoparticles (Co1-xMnxFe2O4 with x varying from 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) of size varying from 16nm - 73 nm were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The structure of the samples was determined by using X-ray diffraction Characterization. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the synthesized samples were cubic spinel in structure. The obtained XRD result shows that the lattice constant (ao) increased and the average crystallite size shows decrement with manganese substitution. The average crystallite size of the particles was determined by using Debye Scherrer’s Formula. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the range 4000-400 cm-1 was reported. The water absorption bonds and the spinel structure of crystalline cobalt manganese ferrite nanoparticles were reported. The Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) results revealed the magnetic properties of the synthesized samples such as Remenance, Coercivity and saturation magnetization. The VSM results reported that the remenance and Coercivity were in decrement and the Saturation Magnetization found to be decrease and increase with Manganese implementation in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The synthesized cobalt manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles could be used in ferroelectric and in magnetic recording applications.
This paper addresses the timely issue of analyzing the custom power controllers based on an improved Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) technique called the Inverted - Sine PWM (ISPWM). These controllers are also named as Distribution - Flexible AC Transmission System (DFACTS). DFACTS are a new generation of power electronics based equipment aimed to enhance the reliability and quality of power flow in low-voltage distribution networks. The proposed ISPWM technique can be used to control Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of custom power devices. This switching technique uses a sinusoidal reference signal and an inverted-sine as carrier signal. The ISPWM technique generates low voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in comparison with conventional Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique. This type of switching technique called the ISPWM has been used on a simple VSC for analyzing its impact.
Many studies attest to the pollution of surface water, wastewater and water intended for human consumption by organic molecules including emerging drug residues at trace levels. These emerging micropollutants are mostly little or not removed by sewage treatment plants and can consequently be found in the natural environment. The occurrence of antibiotic drug Sulfonamides in influent and effluent samples from three Tunisian Wastewater Treatment Plants was evaluated. The application of optimized multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 9 commonly used antimicrobials was carried out by on-line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS). Isotopically labeled compounds Sulfadimethoxine d6 and Sulfamerazine 13C6 were used as surrogate internal standards to compensate for possible matrix effects. The presence of 9 antimicrobials is confirmed in the influent samples. Exclusively sulfamethoxazole was detected in both influent and effluent samples of three WWTPs (WWTP1, WWTP 2 and WWTP 3) at concentrations of (1.1–5.3µg/L), (0.3–0.6 µg/L) and (0.4–0.5 µg/L), respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of sulfamethoxazole observed i.e. 5.3 μg/L in the effluent sample is mainly due to the great size of WWTP 1 and the large volumes of wastewater inflow which is in accordance to the largest population that it serves with 400.000 inhabitant equivalents.
Usage of Image has been increasing and used in many applications. Some applications such as the transmission of images in computer and mobile environments cannot use images directly due to the large amount of memory space needed to store these images. Image compression has a very important role in digital image processing and for effective transmission and storing of digital images. There are various techniques that can be used in image compression. Today JPEG algorithm has become the de facto standard in image compression. The source of its excellent compression ability is the quantization table which determine which frequency components of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) will be neglected. The JPEG default quantization table is generated from a series psycho-visual experiments from several angle points of experimental views. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a biologically-inspired optimization algorithm and has been experimentally demonstrated to perform excellent to solve many optimization problems by finding out the global best solution in a complicated search space. In this paper, to enhance the accuracy of the JPEG image compression algorithm, the PSO algorithm has been used to search the optimum quantization table. Simulation results show that the performance of the standard JPEG method can be improved by the proposed method in terms of PSNR and MSE. The proposed color image compression method has produced an average PSNR gain of 69.874 % compared with the standard JPEG color image compression method.
Energy efficient operation of any portable devices ultimately increases the lifetime of the devices between every battery charging. The multi-core processors are used widely today for increasing the performance of computing. Efficient scheduling of the real-time tasks becomes necessary to effectively utilize all the cores in a multi-core processor. This work focuses on energy efficient task scheduling of the real-time tasks in homogenous multi-core processor environment. To increase the utilization and reduce the energy consumption of the each core, Simulated Annealing based approach is used to slowly converge to a better solution.
The study aimed to measure the compatibility of Abdulaal Idrissi hospital police and its relationship to some demographic variables. The researcher used the descriptive analytical study. A total sample size of 130 was chosen randomly stratified way. The study used tools like the basic preliminary information form and scale professional. The author has used several methods for statistical data processing like the t-test and analysis of variance and the percentage correlation coefficient.
The main findings of the researcher are:
1/ that the level of professional consensus is good
2/ There are no statistically significant differences in compatibility between males and females.
3/ There are no statistically significant differences in compatibility between married and unmarried.
The present research aims to study the variability of the NDVI in the step of annual times in the catchment area of Upper Ouémé between 2000 and 2015. Vegetation Index data is analysed to highlight the spatial variation time of vegetation. The MODIS 250 m resolution are used to analyse the details of the dynamics from 2000 to 2015. Generally, vegetative activity in the Upper Ouémé, declined during the 2000-2015 time series. The spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation brought together the months of the year, according to homogeneous dynamics. So some months, like those of July-August, are marked by a significant improvement in the vegetation. Others, contrariwise, knows a reverse situation. These are the months from November to February. The Pettit test applied to the series of NDVI MODIS shows that between 2000 and 2015, the data are not homogeneous and that there are dates from which the changes were observed in the data. The year of greater plant production is 2003. As for the year to the smaller plant activity, it corresponds to 2005.
Congestion in the transmission lines is one of the technical problems that appear particularly in the deregulated environment. One of the congestion management methodologies is installing Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) devices into the system. The major objective in applying TCSC is to increase power transfer capacity in critical tie-lines under contingency conditions. Under normal steady state conditions, it can be used to damp Sub-Synchronous Resonance by converting a part of the fixed compensation to controllable series compensation. In this paper, a novel method using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal allocation of TCSC devices for maximizing the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of power transactions between source and sink areas in the deregulated power system. The algorithm simultaneously searches the location, size and cost of TCSC devices. ATC is calculated using AC Power Transfer Distribution Factors (ACPTDF). The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using a modified IEEE 30 bus test system in normal and contingency conditions for the selected bilateral, multilateral and area wise transactions. The simulation results show that the introduction of TCSC devices in a right location could enhance ATC, reduced total losses and improve the line congestion as compared to that of the system without TCSC devices.
Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on the surface characteristics and adhesion properties of nylon-rubber composite was investigated. Plasma surface modifications with helium and oxygen were performed on the nylon-6,6 fabrics to improve the surface roughness and adhesion bonding. Surface morphology of plasma treated and untreated fibers were examined through scanning electron microscopy, and the change in the surface roughness properties were measured by KES-FB4 surface tester. The FTIR analysis confirmed the change in surface groups of nylon-6,6, the conversion of amide groups into amine groups. Plasma treated fabrics were then subjected to Resorcinol Formaldehyde Latex (RFL) treatment, followed by a rubber moulding. Micro-roughening of nylon-6,6 fibre with an optimum surface roughness (SMD) of 18.4 μm was obtained for 30s plasma treated. In line with surface roughness, peel strength also increased up to plasma treatment time of 30s and then it decreased, however, all the plasma treated fabrics showed higher peel strength than the control fabric. DSC result further revealed that the plasma treatments do not affect bulk properties.
For highway construction projects, sub grade soil stabilization is one of the prime and major processes. The strength of the sub grade soil is indicated by its California bearing ratio (CBR) value which is quite expensive and time consuming. In order to overcome this situation, the present study aims in predicting the soaked CBR value for the stabilized soil by Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling. Experiments were done to stabilize the soil with the addition of varying percentages of bagasse ash ranging from 0% to 10%, in an increment of 2% and also with geogrid layers. Maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, plasticity index, bagasse ash fraction and number of geogrid layers were taken as input variables and soaked CBR value as output variable for the regression based models. It is observed that ANN model is accurate than the MRA model in predicting the soaked CBR value of soil stabilized with bagasse ash and geogrid, both the measured experimental values and predicted values are in good agreement.
The present work was about the esteem of oneself and cleverness of communication of the agents of the public corporations of the city of Goma/DRC case of the DPI, ONC and FPI So, we resorted to a questionnaire as scale of Likert managed in a direct manner to a sample uncertain of 55 agents pulled by the systematic technique. To strip and to treat the data, we resorted in the software SPSS, version 18. After the survey, we got the following results: The first hypothesis stipulated that the agents of the public corporations would use a weak level of the communication cleverness (relational, of precision and summing up) at the time of their benefits. The found results clearly show that the hypothesis is varied, because, more of the half of the topics develop the cleverness of communication in a moderate manner. The results referring to the effects of the social and demographic variables as age, the sex, the level of survey, the seniority and the organization don't have can be decided in the present article. As for the second hypothesis, one expected what the esteem of oneself encourages the communication of the agents of the public corporations positively at the time of their benefits. The results to which we succeeded show with precision that the hypothesis is invalidated, because, the results advanced by agents reflect weak and non-meaningful interrelationships with the esteem of oneself. The communication is a very large survey field but the cleverness of communication is even more precise concepts. Some aspects are sometimes appreciated partially, what constitutes some points of reference marks concerning the cleverness of communication for the future research.
This paper describes the relationship between the designing training program and the level of creativity and innovation by using the fuzzy logic as a suitable tool to evaluate the linguistic variable.
The researchers used the Fuzzy Logic (FL) to analyze the collected data of questionnaires, they used MatLab 6.5 to calculate the FL equations in addition to Excel.
The researchers concluded that there are many different relations between creativity and innovation and the main items of designing the training program.
Age estimation based on face detection, is one of the different areas of study within digital images and is widely used by researchers and the by the different technological applications. Consequently, the present research focuses on studying the methods and the most important trends on age classification based on different analyzes of the main facial characteristics of a person such as the proportions of the face, identifying wrinkles, drooping eyelids, and fiducial points, among others. With these data, and using computational learning algorithms, better known as support vector machines and artificial neural networks, an analysis of some classification processes it is performed. Some age estimators such as OpenBR and Face API were also tried in order to obtain solutions that help generate new proposals for age estimation. Determining the age of people can be of assistance for marketing studies; for selecting contents suitable to certain age groups; for systems based on human interactions; and the probable detection of child pornography, which help to prevent criminal content subsisting on the web.
The study of physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, and electrical conductivity) Rivers Water (Lubumbashi and Kafubu) remains essential insofar as it allows to highlight the current status of these two streams to impose safeguards that hardly renewable resource, for its better management. Thus a transect was established on the river starting from Lubumbashi Bridge Katuba (Station A) to downstream of the Kafubu River (station E). Measures on the physico-chemical parameters of the water in situ were performed in order to determine the current state of water (quality), the use by local residents and especially to establish responsibility in relation to the source of contamination (population or society). The results of measurements on the physicochemical parameters indicate strong pressure from rivers and Lubumbashi Kafubu due partly to the presence in front of the Terril Processing Society of Lubumbashi (STL). This by the spill hot liquid effluents untreated into the river Lubumbashi would be the origin of the change in the physical, chemical and biological conditions of aquatic creatures, preventing them from achieving their optimal life cycle. And secondly to the rejection by the people of Kamalondo common, Kenya, Katuba various waste (organic waste, electronic waste, chemical detergents) in the two rivers in the study. These wastes have contributed their degradation, to changes in physical and chemical parameters of water in particular pH and turbidity. This upstream to downstream class waters of two rivers in the study of inferior quality and should be subject to special monitoring.
The study concerns the analysis of physical-chemical parameters (T °, pH, C.E, Turbidity, DO) along the river Lubumbashi to diagnose its current state. Thus, in situ measurements were carried out on the river Lubumbashi divided into two bays. The results obtained show that station B where the discharge liquid effluent from the Slag Processing Society Lubumbashi (STL), an increase of the temperature, conductivity, and a decrease in dissolved oxygen content accompanied by a acid pH. Turbidity has very high values in all stations and above 50 NTU, which indicate very cloudy water condition. This could be justified by the study period, the rains and rivers receive various wastes. These contribute to increased turbidity of river water Lubumbashi. The conductivity values are also very high especially at the station B, and are positively correlated significantly with the pH as well as the concentration of ETM (Cu, Co, Pb, Fe) analyzed in the previous study. What justifies the low oxygen levels in the stations B, C, and D impacted by the hot liquid effluents discharged by the STL, this is confirmed by Hebert and Légaré who have shown that cold water contains a greater amount dissolved oxygen than warm water. The presence of small fish, frogs in the stations A and E at the level of dissolved oxygen of 4.2 and respectively 4.5 mg / L indicates the existence of an aquatic life. Demonstrating a self-purification of the river Lubumbashi.
Introduction: Food-drug can have a significant influence on the therapeutic success of the drug and on the adverse effect profiles of many drugs being administered. This study assessed the prevalence of potential drug-food interactions and orientation of health professionals on the proper use of medicines.
Methods: Cross-sectional study which included 517 patients aged 18 years or over between May-August 2012. The analysis of the information included estimates of central tendency, variability and proportions. Multivariable analysis was performed by the Statistical Learning Theory Exhaustive CHAID algorithm was used to define of cut-offs for the complexity of pharmacotherapy and prioritize patients more likely to take their medications incorrectly with regard to food.
Results: 1786 drugs were used by patients. Captopril and omeprazole were the most incorrectly used. Total of 66.0% of patients reported that they had not received any information on their pharmacotherapy and 95.2% stated that they had doubts or difficulties that could have been resolved by the pharmacist. An absence of additional information to those strictly necessary for compliance with the regimen of drugs prevailed (89.7%). The most common inaccuracy was taking a drug with food that should be taken on an empty stomach to improve absorption of the drug (57.7%).
Conclusion: Professionals, in general, do not seem to warn their patients to take their medications on a full or empty stomach, at least in writing medications. Health professional awareness of the drug administration process can reduce medication errors and may contribute to the optimization of pharmacotherapy.
The current context in Morocco is marked by an important demographic change where the retired people are going to represent the most important segment of the population due to the ageing of the population. The entrepreneurship appears as a credible solution to maintain this category in working, what will allow to create jobs and to strengthen the growth. Based an exploratory qualitative study, this article aims to study the entrepreneurial process of the Moroccan-engineers-entrepreneurs. More exactly, we shall try to understand how these people spreads in entrepreneurship. Based on effectuation theory of entrepreneurship was proposed by Saras Sarasvathy, the results reveal that the seniors Moroccan entrepreneurs proceed with an effectual logic. They start with their means, by defining acceptable losses, by favoring the strategic partnerships, by being opened on the surprises and by creating their own universe. The theoretical and managerial implications of this study will be discussed.
A city is more than the union of its denizens. It is a blend of various land parcels with specific content and context. Apart from the physical setting, an urban space with its attributed character and identity retains the contentment of imageability of a perceiver. Articulation of solids and voids within a given stretch characterizes the urban fabric of that particular vicinity. Theorists confess that one could regulate the emotional quotient of an observer without discontentment, by the way of designing various contextual urban spaces. In 1961, Sir Gordon Cullen postulated concepts like “serial vision”, “here and there”, “closure and enclosure”, “infinity of space” etc., portrayed the sense of appreciating designed urban spaces while shredding the boredom throughout ones solo journey. The systematic planning and visualization caliber of the designer, reflected in the manifestation of many of the then image making urban parcels are barely available with predefined parameters, and rely upon certain profound design principles. Taj Mahal complex in India, a timeless architectural marvel had its global identity not only as a built mass of marble, but also bags the potential of retaining the image making pleasure of a visitor with its exuberant enunciation of volume and space. This paper attempts to discover certain principles of Gordon Cullen reflected in Taj physical setting that intensifies and escalates the imageability, and then concludes justifying the significance of visualization in the design of an urban space so as to stimulate the emotional conscience of a visitor.
The pre-pregnancy and pregnancy are often an opportunity for questions and even anxiety expressed by the woman in labor with Crohn's disease based on the history and experiences of their illness. We report the case of a primigeste of 27 years old, followed for Crohn's disease well controlled during the pre-pregnancy period by PENTASA no taking in early pregnancy had caused a relapse in the second trimester requiring hospitalization at Service of Hepatogastroenterology. On the obstetrical plan, the follow-up ultrasound objectified moderate growth restriction imposing a fetal extraction by caesarean section.
Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in the occupational field, represent a real threat to human health and the environment. The aim of our study is to estimate the level of knowledge of the subjects exposed to these products and assess their toxicity biomarkers. We conducted a prospective descriptive survey about 26 pesticide handlers who checked in occupational medicine service in Hedi Chaker university hospital. A questionnaire allowed us to gather information about the level of workers education and their practices of organophosphate pesticides spacifically Fenitrothion. Three samples of blood and urine tests were collected before and after exposure and after rest in hygiene service. Each blood sample was used for the determination of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. The detection of organophosphate pesticides was made in the urine by GC/MS. A low level of knowledge of the manipulators for pesticides (global score was 20.46) was found. Reference globular cholinesterase activities were all below the usual values. Serum cholinesterase activities were decreased by 30 to 50% in 48% of patients and more than 50% in 30% of the subjects. These activities have recovered after rest. The detection of pesticides (fenitrothion) was positive in 4 workers. Biological assays show impregnation of manipulators by organophosphate. Their kinetic reflects the exposure of subjects with the pesticide. These data were correlated with the low level of workers knowledge (p=0.01).
This research work studied the effect of heat treatment on some mechanical properties of locally produced sand cast Al-Si-Mg alloys. The T6 heat treatment method was used for the heat treatment. The results show that solution heat treatment of Al-14%Si-0.288Mg at 530 oC for 6 hours resulted in an ultimate tensile strength of (120.00±0.70 MPa) with impact energy of (20.00±2.65 J) and the as cast ultimate tensile strength was (122.00±0.70 MPa) with impact energy of (12.33±0.58 J).The peak ultimate tensile strength was (228.32±0.93 MPa) with impact energy (14.00±0.58 J) when artificially aged at 170 oC for 5 hours. The peak strength at 160 oC for 7 hours was (200.40±0.98 MPa) with impact energy (13.67±0.58 J). These values obtained for the ultimate tensile strength were within the European standards for the ultimate tensile strength of sand cast Al-Si-Mg alloys (ISO Al Si7Mg, ISO AlSi10Mg and ISO Al Si12Cu in the T6 conditions are 260, 260 and 170 MPa) respectively. Also Al-Si-Mg alloy responded to the heat treatment very well.
In the context of climate change, socio-economic development of a region depends on its ability to adapt to adverse climate effects. However, a good and sustainable adaptation to these effects requires knowledge of the evolution of future climate. This study aims, the projection of some climatic parameters (temperature and rainfall) of the GOH region (center-west of the cöte d’ivoire) for the 2020, 2050 and 2080 by a model of statistical downscaling (SDSM 4.2.9). To do this, this model includes observational data and data anthropogenic emissions scenarios A2 (pessimistic) and B2 (optimistic). According to the scenarios, temperatures would experience an increase. While rainfalls would decrease in the region. These temperature increases and decreases in rainfall observed could have consequences on the development of the region.
Cet article a pour objectif la découverte des divers sens que la clientèle, le consommateur, confère au slogan « BUTAMU YA KWETU ». Il s’agit d’analyser les représentations mentales que se font les consommateurs de la bière Simba en entendant ou en lisant ce slogan. Nous voulons constater si l’intention communiquée dans le slogan par la Brasimba est repérée par les consommateurs dans le slogan « BUTAMU YA KWETU ».
Un questionnaire appliqué à 50 enquêtés par la procédure de l’échantillon empirique du type occasionnel montre que les enquêtés n’ont pas produit beaucoup des pensées concernant le slogan « BUTAMU YA KWETU » qui s’explique par le fait que très probablement les enquêtés ne se préoccupent pas de la signification de ce slogan.
La représentation du gout de la Simba domine. Nous supposons que les enquêtés pensaient que la Simba a un bon gout. Lorsqu’ils entendent ce slogan, ils pensent spontanément au bon gout que procurerait la bière Simba. De ce fait, les enquêtés semblent influencés par le mot « BUTAMU ».
The West Africa is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change on our planet. This study specifically in Benin in Cotonou, aims to analyze the evolution of minimum and maximum temperatures recorded and homogenized for 1970 - 2008 obtained from the Agency for Safety and Air Navigation. Statistical techniques such as correlation analysis and statistical tests break detection and trend were used for analysis. The results reveal a polyphase increase, but significant in the average temperature during this period. The year 1986 appears as a date of rupture between two trends. Before 1986, the average temperature has dropped to 0.20 ° C per decade and increased in the same way between 1986 and 2008. The increase in average temperatures in Cotonou since 1987 is largely conditioned by the increase in maximum temperatures.
This article examines the difficulties of monetary policy in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo influenced by extensive dollarization in the banking system and institutional weakness. The primordial objective devolve to every government within a given community is to ensure the social welfare of its people. To achieve this goal, governments should develop their monetary policy. One of these is actually a setting of several policies (monetary, fiscal, agricultural ....) all these can be Combined in order to achieve a number of ultimate objectives namely the economic growth, price stability, full employment and external balance whose achievement entrusted to the welfare of the population. In this context, the monetary policy's role is to provide to the real sector the quantity of money necessary for the expansion of the economic activities without generating inflationary or deflationary situations. Indeed, the failure of fiscal policy in the DRC is explained by the tax evasion issues, failure of public finance, and under-evaluation of the tax base. Regarding the monetary policy, its failure is due to the dominance of fiscal policy on monetary policy to the extent that the government of our country remains faithful to financing the budget deficit by the advances from the BCC without any concern of stabilizing the prices.
This piece of work is concerned with the critical analysis of mining children’s situation in Kalehe and Mwenga territories in South Kivu-the Democratic Republic of Congo. We have gathered data for this piece of work in mining sites of Kalehe and Mwenga thanks to direct interviews, observations, and focus groups. This paper aims at showing to any reader or researcher how the children rights are not respected by people in mining sites of South Kivu because children are used as an affordable labor force. We want anyone who may have the possibilities of making just a step to use the result of this research in order to withdraw mining children in those bad conditions that they are living in. After the analysis of the data, we have found out that children are completely ii-treated in all mining sites because of hard jobs that they daily fulfill. They constitute an affordable labor force. Their children’s rights are not respected by adult due to selfish interests. Poverty and hardship in their families are the basic reasons which push parents to send children in mining sites because they should contribute to the income of the family.
The halieutic products are very nourishing foods. However, their consumption poses severe problems of public health in Benin. What risks, deteriorating with the increase of the anthropological pressure on the aquatic environment. Indeed, Benin, fishermen live in communities in villages installed in the immediate neighborhoods of plans of water or in constructed compartments on piles in full water. Their domestic waste is directly dumped into water. Also, the mismanagement of solid waste and liquid put down along these rivers is responsible for the bad quality of rivers. The objective of this study is to appreciate the practices of hygiene implemented during the fishing and the sale of halieutic products at the level of Lake Ahémé, Nokoué and lagoon of Porto-Novo and among the actors of this sector. To do this, interviews were conducted with resource persons for the selection of villages. Two forms of questionnaires intended to fishermen and retailers were used. A total of 240 people were investigated, including 120 fishermen and 120 retailers of fish products. The collected data were analyzed using the SAS 9.2 and MINITAB 14 software. Thus 88% of fishermen and 94% of resellers do not wash their hands before fishing or sale. 7,14% and 3,44% of the fishermen on lake Nokoué respectively and Porto-Novo lagoon use ice for the conservation of their products against 0% in the level of lake Ahémé. 46% of all respondents defecate directly into the waters.
The purpose of this work lies within the scope of the valorization of traditional food of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the province of Tshopo in particular and aims the inventory and evaluation of the nutritive value of the edible caterpillars of Kisangani city and its surroundings. The determination of moisture, the total lipids, total ashes, total proteins, the total sugars and the energy value was carried out according to usual techniques. 12 species of edible caterpillars were identified and gathered in three families: Attacidae (8 species, 67%), Notodontidae (3 species, 25%) and Nymphalidae (1 species, 8%). The average values of various calculated parameters are: water (60.92%), dry weight (39.08%), ashes (4.20 g), proteins (52.13 g), lipids (19.81%), sugars (1.19 g), and energy (392.33 kCal). The production of edible caterpillars must constitute an objective to be preached through agro-forestry programs for a sustainable management of the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and those of the Tshopo Province in particular.
In this paper, we present a current situation of the cooled sensors in the space domain. Thus, we present an immediate image of the recent developments of the cooled technology, a discussion about the relevance of using cold sensors in the spatial domain and influence of the position of sensor in the satellite. To finish, we shall present an example of future mission. It will be about the space telescope James Webb. We shall expose then the scientific objectives, the concerned space agencies and the date of launch. We shall also give information onto the cooled sensors.
This paper presents a novel image encryption scheme based on cellular automata (CA) and chaotic logistic mapping. The logistic chaotic mapping is used for shuffling the pixels which results in permutation. This permuted image is converted into a binary stream image where each rows of the image are converted into binary streams. Then a hybrid cellular automata (HCA) is used to provide diffusion by local interaction of the adjacent bits by applying various CA rules in the permuted image and confusion is brought by the cellular automata rules and keys from pseudo random number generator. In this scheme both reversible and irreversible cellular automata are used where irreversible cellular automata are used as a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and reversible CA is used for diffusion. The properties of the encrypted image such as entropy, correlation coefficients, histogram, key space and key sensitivity prove that the encryption scheme is highly robust against attacks and also reliable in transmission loss scenarios.
The breast cancer is the most threatening factor of women’s lifestyle and the reason of the disease has many factors, but still the gene factor has more influence in the generation of breast cancer where the early diagnosis and prevention is essential. There are many approaches has been discussed in the literature, but the identification and selection of a set of genes which influence the disease is still complicated one. We propose a multi variant approach for gene selection which is performed by performing high dimensional subspace clustering. With the given data set, the method generates a set of rules and unlike generic fuzzy rules the method splits the range values into the number of parts and based on that the rules are generated. Also, according to the different range values, the method generates a multi gene impact matrix where the frequency of range values of each rule is stored. The data set is clustered according to the generated rules and from the generated rules the gene selection is performed. For the gene selection, we compute the multi gene frequency measure which represents how depth the gene has an impact on the classification of disease. The proposed method produces efficient classification of genes in the influence of breast cancer and produces efficient results.
The methods of high-dimensional clustering have been applied for variety of problems and in case of decisive support systems, there are few approaches discussed earlier, but suffers with the problem of false indexing ratio with poor clustering accuracy and higher time complexity. To overcome the issue of poor clustering accuracy, a novel Kn Fast Clustering algorithm is discussed in this paper. The method generates rule sets using the data records from the data set. First the dimension N is identified and for each dimension the range values are identified. From identified fuzzy values, the method computes disease impact factor for each of the dimension or symptoms towards each disease class. Based on the impact factor and the data points, we generate rule sets that consist of a single rule for each of the disease class. The Kn Fast clustering algorithm uses the fuzzy rule sets generated and for each data point from the data set, the clustering algorithm computes KN dimensional similarity measure. Based on computed similarity measure, the data points are assigned a class, and the method reduces the false indexing, overlapping, and time complexity of clustering.
The multidisciplinary study of the beach in Sidi Bouzid is responsible for the implementation of its deposits dynamics is closely linked to the geomorphology and anthropogenic action within this range. It reveals a spatio-temporal variation of the marine dynamics. Indeed, sea erosion is very strong to the NNE and foreshore of the beach as well as in winter. However, sedimentation is well-developed in the SSW from the beach and at the level of the dune in the summer. The origin of sediments may be the Cretaceous limestones of the bedrock and Paleozoic metamorphic terrains of Jacqueline or magmatic Sidi Saïd Maachou. The transit of sediments is through the Oum Rbia node and then by the littoral drift. Therefore the aggressiveness of the dynamic marine and anthropogenic action, in relation especially with tourist activity, too influenced the geomorphology of the beach.
If no precautions are taken and the laws, the development of coastal areas, are respected in this fragile and sensitive area, the consequences would be catastrophic, medium and long term, both on this beautiful beach, its environment and its socio-economic value.
Communication over the network where the nodes are disconnected and continuously moving is highly challenging; mainly because the probability of an end-to-end network connectivity or stable infrastructure is negligible or almost zero. Spatial Networks, Military Networks, intermittently connected Wireless/Mobile ad-hoc networks, etc. are some examples of such networks. With the advancement of technology and application requirements, the need for communication over these types of networks is increasing. Delay Tolerant Network is an emerging area of networks that target at providing a solution here. Communication over DTN involves forwarding through intermediate nodes that store, carry and forwards the message in an opportunistic way. This store and forward scheme arise many security challenges; most of the security mechanisms available today are irrelevant or cannot be applied in DTN environment. Moreover, DTN based implementations require hardware or software modifications to be applied in existing systems or schemes. Thus, in all, limiting DTN based solutions in the real world. Aiming to address communication over challenged, isolated, damaged or broken networks, this paper proposes, WI- FI Assisted Communication Network (WACN), a communication network of mobile challenged networks that uses DTN based store and forward scheme on the default Wi-Fi capability. The proposed network communicates securely and without depending on any conventional methods, i.e. independent of infrastructure, service provider, internet connectivity etc.
In ad hoc networks, wireless devices, simply called nodes, have limited transmission range. Therefore, each node can directly communicate with only those within its transmission range (i.e., its neighbors) and requires other nodes to act as routers in order to communicate with out-of-range destinations. Broadcasting of control packets throughout the entire network is essential for the route discovery, route maintenance and forwarding data packets to every pair of source and destination. Flood routing is a very simple routing strategy that a packet received from a node is copied and transmitted on all outgoing links of that node except for the link that the packet arrived from. After the first transmission, all the routers within one hop receive the packet. After the second transmission, all the routers within two hops receive the packet, and so on. Unless a mechanism stops the transmission, the process continues; as a result, the volume of traffic increases with time cause a serious waste of resources creates broadcast storm problem. In this paper, a new broadcast neighbor discovery routing is implemented to reduce the overhead associated with flooding. A node selects a group of its neighbors for forwarding the packet being broadcast to additional nodes. The performance metrics are analyzed using NS-2 for varying number of data senders (multicast group size) and data sending rate (offered traffic to the network) over QoS aware group communication. Simulation results show that our scheme performs well in most cases and provides robust performance even with high traffic environments. The simulation experiments show that new method can reduce the overhead for different node mobility speed, as compared with the conventional AODV and DSDV routing protocols.