Contraceptive use has been shown to increase rapidly in Tanzania in recent years, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraceptive through multimedia has a positive influence to use and at what magnitude. This paper used a cross-sectional data from 67 women of reproductive age collected in 2014 about the effects of multimedia on women contraceptive use at Kiranyi ward in Arumeru District in Arusha. The data were used to examine extent of multimedia in promoting contraceptive use among these women, the influence of multimedia on women contraceptive use and determining the association between multimedia and women contraceptive use. IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 was used for data analysis.
Findings indicated that about 61.2% Radio and 20.9% Television are the common media used in promoting women contraceptive use. Multimedia shows a great influence on women contraceptive use as 82.1% of the women interviewed claimed to have adapted contraceptive use after they heard contraceptive use advertisement from media. Media information affects women contraceptive use behavior through changing attitudes, adapting contraceptive use. Findings also revealed that there is an association between multimedia and women contraceptive use at p<0.001 in which 82.1% of the women of reproductive age interviewed in the study area adopted contraceptive use after heard contraceptive information from the media. It was concluded that multimedia family planning promotion had an effect on women contraceptive use. The Researcher recommended that responsible players should strengthen multimedia messages to ensure effective dissemination of contraceptive use information hence create enough knowledge and awareness on understanding proper women contraceptive use.
This study explores the management of forest resources from perspective of rural communities and other stakeholders who use those resources in different ways for a wide variety of reasons. The purpose of this study was to identify and understanding key issues related conflicting interests of different stakeholders in governing and utilization of forest resources. The relationships between forest resources and people are mediated through institutions. Institutional arrangements shape resource access and control, and are fundamental to understanding patterns of stakeholders’ interests. This study grouped stakeholders into three groups, which were regulators, facilitators and users with different interests with regard to conservation and use of forest resources. Combining a focus on securing livelihoods with rural community negotiating and decision making processes enables this study to discuss and analyze among different stakeholders which is a key to achievement of more equitable forest resource management and distribution of benefits. This study analyzed and understands conflicting interests of different stakeholders that take place within community as a result of governing, and utilization of forest resources.
The grouping of Bugorhe is one of 14 groupings which account cheffery of Kabare, in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Following the war of 1994 which led to the genocide in Rwanda, Hutu were refugee in Bugorhe by setting up there their camps thanks to then undoubtedly High commissionership for Refugees (HCR). About the year 1997, it was it tower of the RDC with a war known as of release which used the soldier’s Tutsi in order to reverse the capacity of Mobutu. With their arrived and their passage, all the camps of the Hutu refugees were destroyed and those last those which were likely to escape are directed in majority towards the National park of Kahuzi- Biega, a park located at the western part of the grouping of Bugorhe. With their arrived in the forest, unfortunately, the latter did not delay to leave the forest by causing acts of vandalisms to their hosts of yesterday who have nourishes them, sheltered them while killing, by raping the girls in the presence of their parents, their brothers, the moms in the presence of their husbands and in front of all the children, the fields cultivated by Congolese in end being collected by these same attackers, the peasants victims of these acts could not support and were obliged to move away in order to seek a place of takes refuge. Here is how the grouping of Bugorhe will be of a blow over-populated bus being crossed by the road Bukavu- Goma, but also sheltering the National Airport of Kavumu/Bukavu; the part being on both sides road is so much is made safe little and Being it much importance attaches to it. This being, the entity received a great number of moved interns, with this situation, waste multiplied as well as an anarchistic construction. After observation curiosity pushed us to make this study in order to account to us for the quantities of waste which produce the households but also the mechanisms of management of the latter in order to cleanse the medium. After study we noted that more than 60% of household more than one kg per week however produces the 100% of our surveyed confirmed that there is no public dustbin in this medium, that enables us to make a confirmation which it is possible to find by-here and by-there waste in small pieces where the peasants and even and especially at public places live. The sensitizing of the population on the management of waste as well as the adoption of a public dustbin as of other strategies would be a response to healthiness in grouping of Bugorhe.
The phenomenon of the famine is a problem that touches the big part of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the one of the South-Kivu in particular. The agricultural production being least following multiple reasons as the excessive exploitation of soil without thinking about restoring him elements exported by cultures, the no respect of the cultural techniques succession, the disruption of seasons and other climatic risks; these dive the peasants agriculturist in a misery that makes that of time some have tendency to yet abandon the agricultural sector one of lever of development and survival in farming middle of the R D Congo and the source of the food substances. This being, we led this survey in view to demonstrate comparison that can exist as for the influence of the chemical manure (N P K) and the organic manure (manure of farm) on the dwarf bean so that the producer makes a discriminating choice between the two according to his financial means as well as his faculties to use one or the other. To the term of this experimentation, the manure of farm proved to be more important than the N P K and parcels no fertilized for nearly all observed parameters; bigger biomass, good harvest indication, weight of 100 seeds most elevated... The N P K stood in second position during the experimentation.
The usage of the ketamine as a general anesthesia to the animals fellowship (dog and cat is the most used in such conditions that the effective veterinarian in field conditions result to premeditations. The smallest animals hard to weight and consequently to which the dose is administered becomes more estimative than reality, are cause of poisoning by overdosage and who from there die at 80% between 6 hours to 10 hours after operation. Except secondary effects and the toxicity of betalactamines (penicillin G) and aminosides (dihydrostreptomycine) associated as convulsions, the muscles paralysis and the balance’s troubles; the mucous membrane’s dryness manifestations of the tongue and gums, ending the respiratory collapse had been observed. The death of the cat is usually caused by overdosage.
The ecological crisis as well as his/her/its demonstrations captivates the attention of the entire humanity. In our survey, we left from the question: what they are the demonstrations of the ecological crisis? This question allowed us to fix us two objectives in our survey: to present the different demonstrations of the ecological crisis and their consequences on the population; to show that the demonstration of the ecological crisis varies from a middle to another. To reach these two objectives, we consulted the documents treating the ecological crisis and the investigation done in the city of Kisangani and the farming city of Ikela. The result shows that in the city of Kisangani and the farming city of Ikela the heat, the drought and the floodings are the demonstrations of the ecological crisis. The heat is observed in the cities and the drought in the farming surroundings. What shows that the demonstrations of the different ecological crisis according to the middle. At the end, we raised some questions that can be the subject of the ulterior studies.
The diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates of Tshula River in Bukavu basin of Lake Kivu and physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters influencing their populations were studied during 8 monthsat four sampling stations. Two phyla were identified: Arthropods dominated (88.5%,23 taxa out of 26) and Annelids (11.5%, 3 taxa). According to the number of individuals per species, Chironomustentans dominates (52.7% of the total), followed by Simulium venustum (24.1%) and Baetis sp (11.9%).
The Shannon diversity indices seasonally averaged H'=1,174 for the rainy season and H'= 0.64 for the dry season. The abundance of the pollution sensitive Chironomids confirmed the high pollution levels of this river alike previous studies. Physico-chemical parameters vary between the sites and influence 78% the variation of benthic macroinvertebrates numbers. Conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus and suspended matters influence most significantly the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates.
This scientific publishing consisted to the evaluation of relationship between chemical structures and pharmacological activities of Spilanthes Mauritiana extracts, an antdiarrheic plant founded in Bushi.
To arrive there we proceeded by the thin layer chromatography using two standards moderns drugs used in diarrhea treatment. Final results revealed spots of analogical retention factor (Rf) with the standards used, such as ciprofloxacin ®, Negrame®.
This leaded us to conclude that there are similarities between some principles ingredients contained in Spilanthes Mauritiana and the witness moderns drugs used in diarrhea treatment.
This scientific publishing consisted to evaluate the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacalogical activities of Leucas Martinisensis extracts, an ant-diarrheic plant of Bushi.
To arrive there we proceeded by thin layer chromatography using two standards moderns drugs used in diarrheic dieses treatment. Final result revealed spot of analogical retention factor (Rf) with the standards drugs used, such as Cyprofloxacin®, Negrame®.
This result leaded us to conclude that there are similarities between some principles ingredients contained in Leucas Martinisensis plant and the witness modern drugs used in treatment of diarrheic dieses.
The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of self report Indigenous Death anxiety scale (IDAS). The Urdu version of scale was administered on 224 Pakistani Muslim population .Their age ranged from 16 to 46 years and above. Test –retest reliability for 15 –days interval showed good indices of (r=.81, p<.01). The convergent validity of present scale with Templer’s Death anxiety scale (r=.60, p < .01) and discriminant validity of present scale with Revised Life Orientation Test (r= - .61, p < .01) demonstrated significant values. We concluded that that present scale is a cultural specific, reliable and valid tool for measuring death anxiety.
In this paper, an optimal Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is developed for binary distillation column using first principle model and linearized models. The nonlinear multivariable binary distillation column process is simulated with first principle differential equations and its linearized 16th order and reduced 5th order models were obtained. The GPC is designed based on original linearized model, reduced model and nonlinear first principle model. The performance of GPC with the above three considered model structures were compared. The response of GPC with reduced 5th order model shows similar characteristics of linearized 16th order model. Hence, the computation complexity can be reduced using a reduced order model for a binary distillation column process, without compromising on the performance.
Being connected anytime and anywhere with access to any requested content from any device is a current societal challenge known as ATAWADAC (AnyTime AnyWhere AnyDevice AnyContent). This paper raises the issue of the synergetic potential that mobile access offers to ATAWADAC services and its integration with Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) in a growing environment realized through mobile applications worldwide and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in particular. The DRC has a 3G mobile network reaching only 0,8% of the population, the equivalence of 0,56 million inhabitants with no mobile computing. M-learning (Mobile Learning) can only exist when mobile computing networks and PKM platforms are implemented. From research conducted through literature reviews and published electronic data, as well as based on a mathematical and graphical demonstration; we were able to provide some answers to these issues and present in this paper key findings on mobile data usage, mobile network coverage and mobile Internet in the DRC. This was achieved by using two methods. The first method investigated the prerequisites for the existence of ATAWADAC services which cover i) ubiquitous computing ii) mobile computing iii) portable computing, iv) ambient intelligence and v) mobility. The second method consisted of demonstrating through graphical interpretations and calculations how to integrate the following four concepts: i) the mobile computing equation ii) the value of 3G mobile network in DRC iii) the PKM chain and iv) the three layering models defining the relation between the ATAWADAC, KPM, and mobile applications as a concrete result of our analyses and findings on M-Learning. Besides the description of these methods, this paper presents an interpretation of the results found and proposes avenues for future research.
The 11 september 2001 events in the United States of America have constitued undeniably a decisive turning point in the terrorism history. Since this fateful date, the virulent and tragic spread has not spared the DRC than the remaining part of Africa. In reaction to this criminal phenomenon and its tragic consequences, movements of technical adaptation or renforced severity of criminal systems of struggle against terrorist criminality have marked States at the national level as well as the international level.
The assessment of Congolese criminal system of struggle against terrorism following terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 lets foresee a process of puntual adaptation of criminal normativity and institutional frame. It informs (tells) that before the 11 September 2001 situation, the Congolese criminal right of struggle against terrorism comprises a criminal lesgislation wich, though not including norms specific to terrorism, comprises pertinent systems able to prevent and repress activities related to terrorism. But because of the 11 September 2001 attacks, the Congolese criminal system of struggle against terrorism is clearly improved. First, the banning of activies related to terrorism on the national land is constitutionally devoted. Second, the law-maker develops (deploys) a pertinent criminal right that takes place in the general judiciary frame, but not in the exception criminal legislation of struggle against terrorism. However, despite dynamics (process), the state of Congolese criminal judiciary against terrorism provides information on major limits that let foresee the perspective of improvement.
In this paper an artificial neural network optimization technique and models is used for analysis the bandwidth of Microstrip antenna. The Ч shaped Microstrip patch antenna designed and use operating frequency 6.83 GHz to analysis the bandwidth of antenna. Artificial neural network models used and varying the different parameters of Microstrip antenna to measure the bandwidth and its results is compared with artificial neural network results. The most common dielectric substrate Polyethylene =2.25. ANN is vey suited for analysis the proposed antenna and gives more easy calculation and design of microstrip patch antenna.
In this paper, we study the technological governance dynamic international within a new frame work which extends models used in the literature. The technological governance is now recipient of the technological projects within the new organizations. Which are the rules of technological governance international like its borders? Which are the methods of its quantification? The objective of our research is then to construct a global model of evaluation of the technological governance dynamic by method of physical science. Firstly, we will try to formulate the equation the technological governance. Secondly, we will borrow the model of dynamic Newtonian. In order to be clarified on the evaluation and measure of the technological governance and to find out the variable upon which it depends.
Kinematics and Newtonian dynamics will serve to quantify the technological advance of firm or industry which will make it possible to inform the decision makers about the state of health of their technology and to guide them in their ulterior strategic choices.
The 1994 Genocide committed against Tutsi took more than one million victims in only one hundred days. This study deals with Hutu extremist women participation in genocide. These women came from all segments of Rwandan society: teachers, peasant women, young women, students, religious and even mothers. This study analyses the extent of the cruelty committed by Hutu extremist women against the Tutsi during the genocide. These women even killed their children and their families. After the Genocide, several among these Hutu extremist women were guilty of crimes of genocide including sexual abuse against the Tutsi. The findings of this research work highlight the barbarity of Hutu extremist women throughout the 1994 Genocide committed against the Tutsi.
The rampant and uncontrolled human impact degrades increasingly freshwater resources available in surface. The overall objective of the study is to determine the diversity and distribution of microalgal périphytics communities Batika and Tongo'o Bassa rivers. The specific objectives are to make a floristic inventory; measure the physicochemical parameters associated with these rivers and to identify their spatial and temporal variations. Organic materials and stones were sampled in each river. A total of 87 species were identified, of which about 39.08% of Diatomophyceae, 26.43% of Chlorophyceae, 11.49% of Cyanophyceae, 09.19% of Zygophyceae, 08.04% of Euglénophyceae, 03.44% of Dinophyceae, 01.14% respectively Chrysophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Diatoms are the most frequent class in samples of river stations. Chlorophyceae are the most dominant class and dense in all stations. The Uronema elongatum, Mougeotia sp. and Oedogonium sp. 1 species are common to all stations. The specific changes in algal communities between stations located upstream from the stations located in the transition and downstream are striking, with a richness and diversity in higher epiphyton station 1 (46 species) and lower the epilithon station 6 (8 species).
The data stream has recently emerged in response to the continuous data problem. Stream data is usually in vast volume, changing dynamically, possibly infinite, and containing multi-dimensional features. The attention towards data stream mining is increasing as regards to its presence in wide range of real-world applications, such as e-commerce, banking, sensor data and telecommunication records. Similar to data mining, data stream mining includes classification, clustering, frequent pattern mining etc. techniques; the special focus of this paper is on classification methods invented to handle data streams. Performance of data stream classification is measuring by involving processing speed, memory and accuracy. Also, a classification algorithm must meet several requirements in order to work with the assumptions and be suitable for learning from data streams so studying purely theoretical advantages of algorithms is certainly useful and enables new developments. Here we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art data stream mining algorithms with a focus on classification because of its ubiquitous usage. It identifies mining constraints, proposes a general model for data stream mining, and depicts the relationship between traditional data mining and data stream mining. In this paper, we propose a new streaming data classification algorithm based on Hoeffding tree algorithm called Fast Decision Tree Algorithm (FDTA) as an improvement method to classify stream data and compared between them according to the three measures which are classification accuracy, memory space and execution time.
This work consists in evaluating the effectiveness of the primary schools of Kisangani, appreciate the equality of the assets of the pupils of sixth primary year and to highlight some individual and family variables of the pupils and the characteristics of the schools, to identify those which would make it possible to make a good prediction of performances of 6th form pupils in primary school in mathematics.
With this intention, we proceeded to an investigation near 372 pupils of sixth primary year, resulting from 15 primary schools of Catholic, Official and Privar conduct of the school year 2009-2010, which pupils were drawn in a random way. We used descriptive method for realize this work.
With the exit of this study, the results show that these pupils differ with regard to their degree from control from the objectives from training from mathematics; the pupils of the schools concerned are neither effective, nor equitable yet, only the variable related to the process of teaching allowed to predict performances of the pupils in mathematics. Consequently, it is necessary to take care that the teachers really exempt in this branch, in other words, an effort must be provided for the adequate training as of these teachers.
The style of teachers, mainly their attitudes results from the context. It results from the experiment, and does not become an automatic routine control insofar as they are developed by the means of very slow interactions (action/reaction), and becomes built well established by each individual only after a period. The attitudes can be modified only by each individual, when it becomes aware, through elements and indices, that new attitudes would be adapted to react to the environment.
We must worry about the negative attitudes of teachers because they affect most of pupils.
Within the framework of this article, we put ourselves the question to know which is the attitude of teachers of some Kisangani’s schools towards their pupils? This attitude is it in correlation with the results of pupils in reading French comprehension?
The results show that the correlation between attitudes of the teachers and pupil’s results in French comprehension is generally weak. This for saying that the positive attitudes expressed by teachers towards their pupils were not correlated with the results of pupils.