The present work on « the contribution of agriculture in the economic recovery of the Maniema province from 2010 to 2012 ». The overall objective of this study is to measure the contribution of agricultural production in the recovery Economic development of the Province of Maniema.
To achieve this goal, we have formulated our issues around the following questions: What is the contribution of Agriculture in the economic revival of Maniema? And what are the obstacles to the development of the agricultural sector in The Province of Maniema?
In view of the concerns raised, we believe that agriculture would not have an impact on the economic recovery of Made of low production. Then we believe that this situation is due more particularly to the lack of several Financing of food security in the province (lack of continual supervision of agri-multipliers, lack of Phyto Sanitary product, climatic disturbance due to irrational deforestations, non-accessibility of several roads of Agricultural service disseminated in the 4 corners of the province of Maniema) and lack of project to raise culture Perennial (agricultural plantations).
Indeed, we note that the growth rate of agricultural production in 2011 and 2012 have either reached the negative or dropped to worrying proportions. This drop in production has negatively influenced the ratio of production to population, which ratio determines the degree of satisfaction of the population's food needs by local production. It is noted that this ratio is minimal, which means that the agricultural production of Maniema has not been able to feed the whole population of Maniema. The province, to fill the deficit, proceeds with the importation of the food products thus causing a release of currency and a delay in the economic revival.
So, under these conditions, agriculture in Maniema has not been a stimulating element of economic growth.
This article probes into Leech’s Interpersonal Rhetoric and more precisely the politeness principles chosen in expressing politeness in English and Kihavu. It pinpoints the main differences and similarities of politeness as well as the different cultural features pertaining to connotational aspects of politeness in both English and Kihavu. It draws instances from actual speech situations in either language to show how politeness is expressed by English people differently from Havu people owing to their different cultural backgrounds. Throughout this research, the findings have revealed that an accurate selection of the politeness principle to employ and a good mastery of the English culture by Havu people are vital to avoid being misconstrued by English interlocutors, especially in the perspective of cross-cultural communication. Further, this research has been possible thanks to the library and ethnographical researches, the socio-linguistic and pragmatic approaches, the analytical method and interviews.
An etiological investigation of cholera has been conducted in the city of Kisangani, to the township of Lubunga (Province of the Tshopo). A sample 528 households were chosen there. 504 households have been kept after the criteria of inclusion and only 480 had obeyed the criteria of non-inclusion; either a rate of exploitable answers of 95,2%. This allowed us to identify the reasons of the repetition of the cholera epidemics while verifying its 4 factors of risk there through the customs of the population living for more than 3 years and, having accepted to answer the questionnaires of the investigation correctly. These reasons are: Consumption of infected water, non-hand washing, mismanagement of excreta, existence of unhygienic latrines, poor handling of corpses and flooding. This survey shows that 83.3% of households consume untreated river water. Drinking water management utensils are insufficient in number or on average two utensils per household. And 63.0% of these utensils are poorly cleaned (sand, ash, handmade or river water). 59.5% of households do not practice the technique of washing hands properly before eating. 56.2% of households have unhygienic latrines and 24.1% of households live without latrines. 59.5% of households practice the mishandling of corpses during cholera epidemics according to their customary ritual, and 39.5% of households mismanage their latrine excreta.
This paper measures the effectiveness of the Convergence Pact, Stability, Growth and Solidarity to stabilize the permanent component of various asymmetric shocks within the WAEMU countries. From the techniques of non-stationary panel econometrics and polynomial approach, we specify an empirical model whose data cover the period 1983-2015. The results show that, for better mitigation of the different components of asymmetric shocks and stimulation of economic activity, it would on average produce a basic fiscal balance by 3% in terms of tolerable deficit. This target is in line with the standard adopted by the new provisions of the Convergence Pact, Stability, Growth and Solidarity.