This work is devoted to flow modeling in the urban underground. This article presents a methodology for estimating infiltration discharge entering a tunnel as a function of groundwater table. Discharge entering the tunnels by groundwater infiltration is modeled and detailed by a numerical approach based on underground flows simulation model. It is about mathematically solving a flow problem in an unsaturated porous medium. This problem until now is not yet well understood in underground flows field in subway tunnels. Finally, an application example and validation performed on one of Paris subway tunnel is presented.
The study of the external factors of opposition to the use of contraceptive methods by women in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo was initiated to find out what influences women of childbearing have to resist to use of the contraceptive methods. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 2,373 women in Kinshasa, which allowed us to identify the neutral or external factors that are the basis of resistance to contraception, they are:
- The gender of the head of the household;
- The crisis of society;
- Lack of women education;
- Lack of awareness among women by qualified agents.
These factors are the targets to be overcome through appropriate scientific actions for greater contraceptive practice. The Epidata Software under the SPSS version 20 application has been used to establish consistency between the literature review and the experimental observations in the field.
The study on the efficacy of phytosanitary treatment programs based on neem extract or kaolin was undertaken in the center of Benin. The objective of the work was to identify a treatment program that is more effective than the outreach in the area. To achieve this goal, a Fisher block device with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions were set up on two sites. The treatments developed consisted of an untreated plot; of a treated plot to the program popularized (PP); of a plot treated exclusively in Kaolin 5%; of a plot receiving: 3 neem-2 emamectine/acetamipride-2 neem; of a plot receiving: 2 emamectine/acetamipride -2 neem-1 emamectine/acetamipride -2 neem and of a plot treated in the mixture of neem + emamectine/acetamipride on 7 applications. Ten applications were conducted with the kaolin used alone and 7 with the other objects. The results showed good control of endocarpiques larvae by programs N°4 and N°6, consisting respectively of 3neem-2 emamectine/acetamipride-2 neem and of 7 treatments in the neem mixture emamectine/acetamipride. The average number of larvae in the green bolls obtained on plots treated following these two programs has not been statistically different from that of the treated plots following the program popularized in the area. This average number of larvae was also reduced as compared to untreated parcels (p=0.0029).
The program exclusive to the kaolin 5% has controlled the endocarpiques larvae, Pectinophora gossypiella and Thaumatotibia leucotreta as well as the popularized program. The number of plants attacked by pests of foliage, including Haritalodes derogata and Aphis gossypii has been reduced respectively by 34.7% and 47% against 95.6 and 82.4% on average by the other treatment programs. The program N°5, starting by two treatments to emamectine/acetamipride was in contrast less effective on the control of the endocarpiques larvae in the area. This study has shown that phytosanitary treatment program consisting of applications of neem extracts alternating or in mixture with an alternative product to pyrethroids can effectively control endocarpiques larvae on cotton, limiting resistance to insecticides and reduce The stress on environment due to chemicals.
The principle of prevention in labor law is the administrative procedure by which the company takes its lead to defeat any disputes that may arise when applying the provisions of a working relationship between the employer and employee. That being so, we understand that the prevention of labor law is reserved, de jure, against the power of the employer because the latter has an administrative prerogative that tends to set the working arrangements to which the worker must comply, in this sense, the rules of procedure, decreed by the employer is the first generator of individual conflicts that should occur between the two parties. Social protection for employees is provided by both the state and the private supplementary insurance bodies. Every employee is a social work, that is to say that he is registered with the social security. Labor law guarantees respect for trade union rights and standards of safety at work and the protection of workers.
The properties of the physical and mechanical fabric play an important role in the determination of the characteristics of the fabric and its function. These properties are only a reflection of structural specifications of the fabric from textile structure, threads, materials, and other processes. The composition of the double fabrics allows the construction of two layers either separate or connected with a variety of designs, and two different materials to each layer, which gives the resulting cloth many of the characteristics that may distinguish it from others, and make it suitable for cold or warm atmosphere or both together and at the same time achieve a sense of comfort in terms of appearance with meeting the goal of the use. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of felting a double fabric according to the appearance and properties of the resulting cloth, which was woven from cotton yarns to one of the two layers of fabric and wool of the other layer and with geometric designs of the two sides of the face and back. Laboratory test and statistical treatments showed a clear effect on the appearance of the fabric before and after the felting and significant differences of statistical significance for some of the physical properties of the double-layered fabric before and after felting and differences between equal and unequal designs after felting.
The present article treats with sellers of tchandi-tchandi and aim at determining the part of the woman in the job by butcher's shop in Niamey. This work was realized thanks to a survey made with a sample of 400 sellers of prepared meats. She took place in the streets of 19 districts situated between 2nd and 3rd districts of Niamey. The results (profits) show that the sale of tchandi-tchandi is an activity dominated by the women. During decades, the hard living conditions favored the insertion of the woman in certain modern and traditional jobs. In spite of these efforts, the women occupy the small shops of street. Today, the phenomenon of urbanization generated a strong consumption of meats prepared in cities as Niamey, capital of Niger, where lives about 40 % of the urban of Niger. The fast population growth of the city, came along with a high demand in meat in a context where an important fringe of the population is poor. The access to the quality meat has them difficult because too expensive. That is why, the women filtered in on the preparation and the sale of tchandi-tchandi, a meat poor quality but accessible to everybody. So, they developed this new activity in which, they are usually excluded in particular in the field of the sale of meat.
One of the major problems encountered in factories is the maintenance of production equipments. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the failures of the centrifugal pump units used in the Regideso / Lukaya plant to draw and distribute water, while investigating their causes. The results expressed graphically showed us that the pump units regularly experienced problems, a situation that led to periods of instability in the distribution of water.
The reliability indicators determine the state of equipments in operation. In this article we have calculated the different reliability indicators of the pump units of the Lukaya pumping plant used for the collection and the discharge of water.
The values found made it possible to understand that the motor pump units are experiencing more and more a loss of performance and calls for the improvement of the practical availability variable.
Nowadays, the concept of innovation is omnipresent in political and economic discourses and in technological, socio-economic and scientific development plans. This returns to the fundamental role of innovation in solving complex problems in a revolutionary way that helps lead countries to development and prosperity.
The realization of an innovation is not the result of a random act, but the result of a process rich in scientific and technical tools and methods using material and human resources. These human resources must possess specific technical and transversal innovation skills. These competencies are reflected in the competence frameworks for engineering education, which increasingly emphasize the need to train creative and innovative engineers capable of succeeding in major development projects.
To this end, engineering education, whether in engineering schools or universities, must manage and structure the resources and activities needed to promote innovation in a well-defined process. Thus, the objective of this work is to propose a systemic modelling of the process of realization of an innovative project in the training of engineers. To do this, case studies were conducted in an engineering school in Morocco. This involves studying innovative projects for implementing an "ISO 14001" environmental management system in an engineering school. These studies identify several elements that characterize the innovation process such as: input elements, output elements, control milestones and resources. The added value of this research work is the understanding of the complexity of the innovation system in the context studied through its representation. This will facilitate the identification of barriers to innovation in engineering education and help put in place an appropriate action plan to promote innovation and creativity.
Progress in the field of biomaterials and the evolution of collage techniques have allowed practitioners to develop adhesive dentistry that aims to sustainably rehabilitate the teeth cut to a minimum and can meet the aesthetic demand of our patients with reliable treatments namely indirect partial aesthetic restorations. The choice of this type of fixed rehabilitations is all the more justified by a greater sustainability of indirect restorations by contribution to direct fillings. However, the use of metal alloys as amalgam-type or indirect indirect filling is still in common use in some countries. The objective of this work is to illustrate via a reliable and simple clinical approach the service that we can offer to our patients by realizing onlays onlays aesthetics respecting the structure, the biomemitism but especially the therapeutic gradient.
After conquering the world of the fixed prosthesis, the digital impression opened to the prosthesis, orthodontics and implantology. Certainly its benefit is present if only for the treatment of the imprint and its archiving, but the concept of evidence-based medicine is broader than that. Several clinical studies have focused on the study of the comparison between optical and conventional impressions, but only a small number of publications reflect a critical analysis of the literature, namely the randomized controlled clinical trials nowadays corresponding to gold standard in terms of level of evidence and systematic quantitative reviews and meta-analyzes of these tests. Within the fixed prosthesis department, we are equipped with a machining machine and in order to make our workflow totally digital, we wonder about the usefulness of introducing the optical impression in our practice. This work was organized in four parts according to the IMRAD structure (introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion). This is a systematic review of randomized, quasi-randomized controlled trials conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes) criteria and the articles were analyzed according to the PICO model (Patient / Problem, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome).
The survey examines the influence of the variables of the school environment, the variable indivuduelles and those of the domestic environment on the performances in mathematics of the schoolchildren of 5th year of Bunia and Kisangani (RDC). To this effect, the data have been collected in 2014 on 48 primary schools of the two aforementioned agglomerations, did 4131 schoolchildren answer a reliable test (α =0,78) math and has a questionnaire of information been exploited to this end. The results showed a meaningful regression coefficient between 7 variables of three categories and the performances of the schoolchildren in mathematics. The contribution of all these variables combined to the total variance of the performances of the schoolchildren rise to 4,1%.
The survey scrutinizes the effect of the well-being feeling in the school on the scores in mathematics of the schoolchildren. This well-being to the school covers some personal features (behavioral, emotional, cognitive) of the pupil, but as sometimes social (relations with the equals or the adults of the school community) and contextual (ambiance, rules, discipline, school requirements, ...).
To collect the data, a reliable math test (ɑ=78) and has a questionnaire of well-being to the school been managed to the schoolchildren (2703) of 5th in 48 schools selected by the uncertain sampling technique, stratified and weighted.
After descriptive, correlative and regressive analysis, the scores of the schoolchildren appeared very dissatisfactory. The well-being contributes non meaningful manner (0,8%) to the total variance of the scores of the schoolchildren. What shows the very mediocre quality of life in the Congolese schools.
The gravity of international crimes has led the international community to condemn them as a whole, and whose national laws have sprouted in order to build a more peaceful society based on justice. The trial being always a dangerous situation, procedural guarantees must be respected and on the basis of which will be examined the value of the conclusion of the final result of the jurisdictional work. The realization of this objective demonstrates that the history of humanity is full of immeasurable efforts to ensure the judicial protection of all parties to the trial, particularly the accused. On the one hand, African leaders have updated an African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights in which an African Human Rights Court has been established. On the other hand, it adopted the guidelines and principles on the right to a fair trial and to legal aid in Africa. Regarding the situation in the DRC, it should be noted that myth or reality, in any case, the Rome Statute instituting the ICC is internalized in the customs of Congolese magistrates that go to its direct application. Having been the scene of several violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law, the DRC, through its constituent of 2006, has scathed to incorporate the essential legal and procedural safeguards provided for in international law into its Constitution.
The aftermath of terror, the trauma of violence, the reflexes of exclusion, the mechanisms of self-defense and sometimes the desire for revenge risk jeopardizing the chances of a genuine rise of democracy in the Member States of the CEPGL. This analysis was intended more as a beginning, a reflection in the effort of historical restitution that it does not provide solutions, to build the CEPGL of tomorrow on an increased sense of alternating democracy, recognizing the rights of the political opposition as surveyed in different constitutions and laws across these states. The politicians in power in the region must realize that they are in no way appropriate to make the opponents assume responsibilities they want to get rid of as actors in the history of failures in the application of constitutional provisions, laws and political agreements. It has been found from our research that the political opposition has not been a constitutional reality in the CEPGL with regard to its constitutional history. On the one hand, we note the absence of the provisions expressly sanctioning the political opposition and the institutionalization of the single party, on the other hand; despite this legal vacuum, at times the opposition has existed in a factual way.
The present study is intended as a proposal for sustainable solutions to the problems that microfinance institutions are currently facing in their development, as effective tools for prudential management and smooth functioning in financial services for beneficiaries. The question that arises is the rapid acceleration of MFIs that open doors every day and face operational and managerial difficulties due to a lack of information on the evolution of financial statements, which is the major problem for the MFIs. efficiency in the administrative organization and financial management of microfinance institutions. At the end of our investigations, it appears that the 3 cooperatives are chargeable accumulated operating losses having made negative their own funds because of the charges; 54,4% related to the tax and tax for 19%.
As regards the study of in vitro pollinic fertility, the best conditions for germination and elongation of the pollinic tube are obtained at 20 g/l sucrose, 0.62 g/l of boracic. On the whole, foreign varieties (Carotina, Marmande, Makis, Opal, Roma) have a weak indicator of viability as compared to local varieties. Fertility of different flowers analyzed according to their position on the plant, is generally decreasing from bottom to top. These results could explain some cases of failure of fertilization when crossing-over different varieties of tomatoes. The results also show the importance of choice of the flower used when sampling pollen grains.
Hotels grow like mushrooms every day, whatever their form, through the city of Bukavu.
From this comes our main question, does the proliferation of hotels in the city of Bukavu contribute to the improvement of the socio-economic life of the inhabitants of Bukavu ?
All the results confirm our hypotheses and lead us to say that the proliferation of hotels contributes to the socio-economic life of the inhabitants of Bukavu.
This study appreciates the level of acceptability of the drink water produced at the station of pumping of Nguba by the households of the cells Nguba and Muhumba in the commune of Ibanda and analyzes the physicochemical properties of this water and bench a comparison with that produced with the factory of Murhundu. The results of the our investigations into the ground near the households supplied with Regideso starting from the station give up the use of this water like feed water and prefer being fed with the water of Murhundu to the reasons which the water of the station is not better physicochemical quality departure its treatment which is incomplete. After the laboratory, the physicochemical analyses show that all the analyzed parameters are in the acceptable one except for the samples of the station of Nguba where conductivity, the chlorine concentration, the turbidity and the suspended matter.
Since the establishment of the military courts in DR Congo by the colonial legislator by decree from December 22, 1888 until February 18, 2006, date of the promulgation of the Constitutions of the Third Republic, the Officer of the Military Public Ministry remained regulatory body for preventive detention and the setting in motion of public action.
To say that there are absences from the procedure of the direct summons as mode of seizure of the military jurisdictions and absence of the chamber of advice required for a suitable justice.
The recognition of the procedures mentioned above remains a prerequisite for the proper administration of Congolese military justice.
The absence of the superior lateral incisor (agenesis, trauma, caries, periodontal disease) is problematic towards the therapeutic decision, which is often multidisciplinary. The choice of the appropriate treatment plan depends mainly on the availability of the space of this tooth on the arch. So we will have mainly 3 options:
- To open the space by an orthodontic treatment before the prosthetic rehabilitation (implant, bridge ..)
- Or to close the space by orthodontic traction of the canine that will undergo a modification by subtraction or coronoplasty to simulate the anatomy of a lateral incisor.
- Or even to abstain when it comes to symmetrical bilateral absence that does not affect the aesthetics of the individual.
This review of the literature summarizes possible approaches to replace the upper lateral incisor and the decision factors of these therapeutic approaches.
Background: The integration of Information and communication technology (ICT) is crucial for increasing the learning quality for students.
Objective: To investigate the perception of students in Dental Medicine towards the use of ICT in teaching Dental Medicine, to assess their effect of easing the learning therefore to detect the best appreciated method in teaching.
Method: Our study is an exploratory retrospective survey questioning 60 dental students in the second year of studies in the Faculty of Dental medicine of Casablanca.
Results: 88% of students were satisfied after integration of ICT in the practice teaching compared to the classical methods. However, only 45 % of students preferred the video projections alone compared to the practice demonstration around the educator. Out of which, 71% of students raised the benefit of the des videoconferences saved in the eLearning platform as a tool of previous preparation of the practice tasks and confirmed the d’un mixt teaching combining the ITC (video demonstration) and the live practice demonstration. Subsequently, the questioned students proposed other fields of exploitation and application of ICT in teaching dental medicine.
Conclusion: The integration of ICT by using les Video-projections during the practice works for the students in dental medicine has showed a benefit and easing effect on their learning. However their exclusive use isn’t sufficient, and will not allow replacing the classical methods of teaching but can complete them for a better assimilation.
We designed a system consisting of two propellers. The first propeller works with the natural wind speed, the second propeller depends on the compressor compressed air that will be started when there is excessive decrease in the natural wind speed. When the wind resumes its normal speed, an optical encoder will give instructions to the microprocessor to stop the motor-compressor.
Under the impetus of the International Financial Institutions (IMF, BM), the DRC set up in 2002 a mining code with a competitive and attractive tax system that enjoyed a ten-year stability period. It was at the end of this period that the Mining Code of 2002 was amended and supplemented by Law No. 18/001 of 9 March 2018, which mainly revised the 2002 tax regime and introduced new measures.
However, instead of using the 2002 mining code as an immutable base for reform by safeguarding almost all tax incentives and rebalancing these benefits with non-financial provisions such as social responsibility, the new tax data introduced by law of 2018, seem to jeopardize the DRC's position as an investment land while the application of the mining code from 2002 to 2017 could lead to a major movement of influx of mining investments in the country.
Although the DRC's nature conservation laws consider artisanal mining in protected areas as an illegal activity and incompatible with conservation objectives, the hunting grounds of Garamba National Park in the Province of Haut-Uélé (DRC) is experiencing an influx of miners from all sides, which poses a threat to the integrity of the PNG.
Examining the strengths and limitations of each of the exploreable options for solving this problem, this article proposes the participatory definition of a transition, similar to participatory zoning, to reconcile the imperatives of nature conservation with local communities’ rights.