Objective: This study aims to investigate ovariectomy effect on serum osteocalcin levels and bone mineral density in rats. Methods: Forty five female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 15 rats per group): sham-operated control, Ovariectomized, and Ovariectomized plus estrogen. After 3 months of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after a 12 hour fast, obtained serum from rats' blood sample was kept at –80°C. For all groups of rats, serum osteocalcin levels were measured by ELISA. The rats' left femoral bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weights and lengths of the left femur were measured with electronic balance and Vernier caliper respectively. Results: This study revealed an increase in serum osteocalcin levels in ovariectomized rats and in ovariectomized plus estrogen rats, alongside decrease in left distal femur bone mineral density in both groups was observed when compared to the control. The mean values of both serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density between the ovariectomized rats and the control were statistically significant. Estrogen administration in ovariectomized rats showed no significant changes in both serum osteocalcin levels and bone mineral density. Conclusion: This study concludes that estrogen-deficiency by ovariectomy induces an increase in bone turnover with higher serum osteocalcin levels in ovariectomized rats and that the combination of serum osteocalcin levels and bone mineral density measurement may be a better predictor of the fracture risk.
It is claimed that happiness is the motive and the aim of every human act at the same time. Around this issue, so many opinions and ideologies are forged which ponder upon the possible means that allow Man to fulfill his/ her happiness. In the XVIIIth century, the quest of happiness is often laid in an ineluctable philosophic paradox. That is to say, Man wants to be happy, but he /she ignores the means to achieve it. To Voltaire, this paradox starts by the demonstration of the tension between good and bad, and between melancholy and happiness. In his poem « On the natural law », his ultimate objective is to get rid of such tension. For him, Man should dodge every cruel act to seize the opportunities of happiness; this happiness cannot be possible only through a universal morality which unites all human beings such as the execution of the law of natural religion which permits to get rid off of irrational dogma and every insignificant illusion. In this case, Man, the first responsible of his/ her proper happiness, should get away from prejudices and metaphysical ideas in order to have access to the approval of the universal morality translated by the justice and tolerance and not by fanatism and intolerance. The voltairien humanism is in this case an important condition.
In this paper, we present a comparison between methods of learning-classification, the first one is called Hidden Model Markov (HMM) which is based on a unsupervised learning, and the second one called Support Vector Machine (SVM) which is based on a supervised learning. Those techniques are used for printed Latin numerals recognition, in different situation: rotated, resized and noisy. In the pre-processing phase we use the thresholding technic and in the features extraction we use the Hu invariants moments (HIM). The simulation results demonstrate that SVM is more robust than the HMM technic in the printed Latin numerals recognition.
The study attempts to answer the following major question: What is the effect of using the strategy of constructive learning on teaching reading to develop some basic reading and thinking skills among first secondary grade students?
Nowadays, a rapid development in the communication technology and increasing the usability of powerful portable devices, mobile users can use their mobile devices to access the information. One of the active areas is the mining and prediction of users' mobile commerce behaviors such as their movements and purchase transactions. The important issue is to mine the rare frequent items from database to satisfy the user needs. In this paper, we propose a technique that can efficiently satisfy the user needs. It predicts the frequent item based on the user selection. Systolic tree implementation is used to predict the frequently moved item in the database. The main aim is to recommend the stores and items previously to unknown user. We evaluate our system in real world and deliver good performance in terms efficiency and scalability.
Religion is a set of beliefs of an individual or a set of people. Language of religion is as sacred as any religion is itself. Language of religion is distinctive as well as prior to everyday language. In spite of many distinctive features language of religion is also having some similar features to the other registers. Language of religion is dynamic and complex regarding its function, style and interrelation with other texts. In this article language of religion is stylistically analyzed. Stylistic features like grammatical level, graphological effects, phonological level and semantics discussed on the basis of stylistic analysis.
This work presents the development of an artificial neural network model based on the Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) for predicting the moisture in the zone of Chefchaouen (Morocco). Our objective is to treat a chronological series of measured data for network response evaluation. For this reason, we used a basic learning neural model for the years 2008 and 2013, the latter consists of a number of meteorological parameters such as humidity, temperature of the air, dew point temperature, air pressure, visibility, cloud cover, wind speed and rain. To determine the network architecture to be used, we varied the number of hidden number of neurons in hidden layers, transfer functions and pairs of transfer functions and learning algorithms. Models performances have been evaluated and developed through the study of the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and correlation coefficient (R). We demonstrated in this study for the prediction of moisture, the best performing model is the one used as transfer functions, the Tansig function in the hidden layer and the Purelin function in the output layer, while using a learning algorithm LM, PMC type of configuration.
Water is the resource that sustains all life on earth and is a key element of sustainable development. It is essential if human beings are to enjoy healthy and safe lives or realize social and economic development. Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. Water pollution means such contaminations of water or such alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of water likely to create a nuisance or render such water harmful to public health or safety. Present study deals with the study of the pollution levels of Kshipra river at Bherugarh, Ujjain. There are many small scale textile, dyeing and printing industries in this locality. In these industries many chemicals, dyes, detergents, waxes, starch and cellulose are used. These industrial effluents are directly thrown in the river without prior treatment. Due to this effluent, river water gets polluted hence this water becomes unfit for drinking, bathing and even washing purposes. The physicochemical study of river indicates that river water is highly polluted. All parameters showed higher values than the prescribed standard values.
The main purpose of the study was to assess teachers' and students' perception of gendering process over girls and boys at secondary schools. Specifically the study aimed at examining the impact of socialization to the students' academic performance in secondary schools. A total of 182 respondents were interviewed by the use of semi structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion and direct observations were employed to obtain the required information. Results show that the common gender stereotypes in secondary schools include "boys are intelligent", "boys prefer studying science subjects", "girls prefer studying art subjects", and "girls are inferior". Results reveal that socialization process promotes effective learning and teaching, increases cooperation and participation, improves students' performance and promotes school ethics conformity. The study concludes that Gender – aware and - sensitive teachers and students play a vital role in promoting gender equality and in turn will interact in a gender lens with the society they are born into. The existing negative stereotyping notions and prejudices amongst students and teachers over girl students; call for re-thinking of the current Tanzanian Women and Gender and Development policy to address negative assumptions and prejudices over girls.
This paper reviews the factors that drive web service to be free for client. Some of web service stand pure and still free and other adopt advertisement banner. However, we trying to understand both and based on which element they run advertisement. Besides, how advertisement assist web as dual advantage for business and client. Illustrate the relation between free web service and advertisement in four specific factors, and how that affect industrial and future product. However, those factors try to indicate to right decision based on analysis and evaluation of data collected. Factors are two types. Some of them have direct effect and other have indirect influence. Developer highlighted those based on information and data analysis seeking better result to serve market. Furthermore, third party might play some rules beside, factors such as traditional and culture based on different region. Many journals and articles observed during research, which they are relevant to the topic, and due to limited to range of source, which serve the aim of research within certain interest. The model goal to understand free web service, and which kind of factor improve the relation between industry and customer through advertisement tool. In additional, web service decide the range of advertising based on the factor. This paper show how web service is provide service to client without cost, and the web service expects from the client to share their interested. Based on the feedback, advertisement delivers industrial product to customer.
The aim of this paper is to measure the extent of disclosure of voluntary financial information in the annual reports of listed banks in Bangladesh. An effort has also been made to identify the impact of profitability on the level of voluntary disclosure. An unweighted disclosure index with 14 financial items has been used to measure the extent of disclosure. The study reveals that most of the listed banks of Bangladesh are not making satisfactory level of voluntary disclosure with average score of about 42.86%. The findings also show that profitability is not significant in explaining the level of voluntary disclosure of financial information.
This is about relating the thermal induction time range from 0-40 minutes for sunflower oil (refined) of definite composition with the change in the thermal oxidation by the models developed by using M S Excel and Statistical Software, Design Expert Software 8.0 with there R2. And through analysis of prepared model data with their plotted graph.
Consumers demand for quality of food has triggered the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which Cold Plasma technology has proven to be very valuable. This review and research aims to develop the models for various constituents of sliced chicken undergoing Cold Plasma treatment for increasing the self-life. The models developed are as a function of cold atmospheric plasma treatment for (0-1.5) minutes, by plotting the graph and finding the trend equation with there R2 on M S Excel.
Consumers demand for quality of food has triggered the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which Irradiation technology has proven to be very valuable. This review and research aims to develop the models for various constituents of sliced chicken undergoing Irradiation treatment for increasing the self-life. The models developed are as a function of irradiation dose (0-6)kGy, by plotting the graph and finding the trend equation with there R2 on M S Excel.