This article, which builds on Buzan’s and the Copnehagen school’s security theorizing, explores the main security issues of a small and landlocked country of the Western Balkans, the Republic of North Macedonia. The internal demographic structure and the external bilateral contests, make this state an interesting case to analyze within the Balkan’s sub-regional security complex. The central argument raised here is that North Macedonia reflects an interplay of regional and internal security dynamics, expressed mainly through an overlap of societal and political security issues. Although in North Macedonia’s case, the societal security issues appear to be crucial, as national identity issues represent the main element around which circulate the greatest fears and insecurities of this country, the approach and way these issues seem to be handled reflect an intersection of the societal and political sector. Relying on main regional security complex theories, this article will construct and analyze the most significant security interactions taking place in North Macedonia and the sectors with most sources for securitization.
Under the Belgian colonial administration (1908-1960) and soon after the Congo independence in 1960, the Congolese teacher had a high standing of live. He was dignified by both the colonizer and his compatriots and belonged to this social class referred to as « évolués » (i.e. educated), which was considered as mediating group between Blacks and Whites, often called « Existence Zone ».Soon after his country’s independence, the teacher’s socio-professional status deteriorated as a result of the recurrent economic and social crises undergone by the country. This drove him into the so-called « no Existence Zone ». And in order for him not to perish, he designed survival strategies which, unfortunately, did not enable him to recover his initial status. This means that he has been unable to get out of the decaying situation ever since.Also, currently, in spite of the government’s endeavour to improve his socio-professional situation, the Congolese teacher is still deep-roosted in these survival strategies. There is still a long way to go to achieve the dream and make it alive. Let’s wait and see.
Background: The nutritional status of children as well as the associated factors vary according to time, region, and the environment of residence (rural or urban). Limited information is available on the risk factors associated with preschool child undernutrition in Cameroon. Therefore, this study evaluate the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 59 months living in Mvog beti health district, Centre region of Cameroon.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that collected anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics data in 102 children aged 6 - 59 months. Weight-for-Height z-score, weight-for-Age z-score and height-for-Age z-score were based on WHO’s Child Growth Standards. The association between undernutrition and associated factors was determined using logistic regression analysis.Results: Of the 106 children aged 6-59 months observed, 12.3%, 8.5% and 18.9% were respectively stunted, underweight and wasted. Low birth’s weight was the main factor associated with underweight. None of the selected variables were significantly associated with stunting. Father’s age and mother’s employment were significantly associated with wasting.Conclusion: Despite a relatively good food self-sufficiency situation, undernutrition is prevalent among pre-school age children in Mvog beti health district at prevalence above the national prevalence for wasting. Socio-demographic factors were associated with the different types of undernutrition.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of public service quality in its relationship with citizen-customers satisfaction. The methodological choice consists of a synthesis of public service theories, a conceptual frameworks of service marketing and models of service quality. This theoretical synthesis made also possible to discuss the concepts of service quality and their application in the context of public administration. Thus, this article proposes a conceptual model of quality based on seven qualitative dimensions of the public service influencing citizen-customers satisfaction. The theoretical results indicate that these qualitative dimensions make it possible to grasp the contribution of quality to mastering the complexity of public service through citizen-customers satisfaction.
In recent years, we have been witnessing profound economic changes which imply a change in organizational boundaries. We note that the inter-organizational mode of operation is more and more relevant, it is thus presented as the appropriate scope for implementing new forms of governance in the service of innovation.Therefore, this article is an opportunity to make a synthesis of the literature having apprehended the concept of governance of territorialized networks of organization and its role in the performance of companies and networks as well as the territory. This is to highlight the different conceptions of the latter, as well as the role that collaborative work plays to improve networks.In recent years, we have been witnessing profound economic changes which imply a change in organizational boundaries. We note that the inter-organizational mode of operation is more and more relevant, it is thus presented as the appropriate scope for implementing new forms of governance in the service of innovation.Work explicitly dealing with the governance of territorialized organization networks (RTO) remains largely in the minority (Jones et al, 1997). However, the notion appears to be the central element allowing to ensure the competitiveness and the existence of these systems (Alberti, 2001).Therefore, this article is an opportunity to make a synthesis of the literature having apprehended the concept of governance of territorialized networks of organization and its role in the performance of companies and networks as well as the territory. This is to highlight the different conceptions of the latter, as well as the role that collaborative work plays to improve networks.
Olive oil production generates olive by-products: pomaces (solid waste) and olive mill wastewater (liquid waste). The latter are a source of pollution for the environment; they are very harmful to the quality of water, soil and even air. Therefore, causing damage to environment which will affect humanity. Thus, the need for their treatment or recovery is necessary. The present inquiry aims at valorizing these margins in the field of cold soap production. The choice of the cold method is due to its ability to maintain the performance and characteristics of each oil used. Analyses show that the mixture of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 40% of olive oil wastewater (oleic acid) obtained by natural decanting of olive mill wastewater, 30% of olive oil, 20% of cocoa oil and 10% of castor oil make a soap with a neutral pH and recommended criteria in the cosmetic field, which will lead to better results.
Purpose: This paper aims to chart sustainability and transition plan for rural resource centres (RRCs) by mobilising resources to continue provide services in the context of limited or no external funds.Design/Methodology/Approach: We exemplify the role of networking to the sustainability of RRCs by conducting an ethnographic study of two RRCs in the West Region of Cameroon. Networking has become an increasingly popular approach that aims to provide grass-roots relay organisations new opportunities for securing uninterrupted provision of goods and services to farmers. Social network analysis is the research analytical tool used to make network theory operational into an applicable set of key variables needed to map the networks that can secure the sustainability of RRCs in Cameroon.Findings: Customer of seeds, institutional organisations including development partners, research centres and municipalities greatly influence RRCs’ organisational and financial sustainability.Practical implication: RRCs have been commended by farmers as a responsible, cost-effective, sustainable and complementary approach to other agricultural extension approaches. As the fulfilment of farmers’ needs determines the viability of RRCs, it is crucial that the latter are successful in transitioning to their new role as service providers.Originality/value: Current there is emergence of new private actors offering agricultural services in Cameroon, and this research sample is of interest for grassroot relay organisations for identifying the requisite conditions to become autonomous and less reliant on external funding in their efforts toward fulfilling farmer’s demand.
In the context of education, culture is considered the heart of our beliefs and practices; it has an effect on how we think, behave, perceive and communicate, all of which affect how we teach and learn. That is, cultural differences produce different beliefs and practices in the field of teaching, which affects students’ motivation either positively or negatively. This study examined the impact of culture on teaching in the Moroccan context, how it shapes teachers’ practices in the classroom, and the extent to which this affects students’ motivation. 26 high school students and 10 high school teachers participated in this survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire research method for both students and teachers. The results revealed that students put the blame on their teachers and teaching methods for the lack of motivation, whereas teachers still use the traditional teaching methods in the classrooms.
Like the majority sub-Saharan Africa cities, Aneho city in Togo is experiencing the problem of sustainable management of fecal sludge. The objective of this study is to contribute to better management of fecal sludge from Aneho city. To achieve this, an inventory of the management of fecal sludge in the city was carried out, followed by the quantification and characterization of the sludge produced according to the different types of existing sanitation systems. The results showed that the fecal sludge sector is experiencing shortcomings in its management. The sludge mainly discharged by mechanical means (62%) is transported to an official unmanaged disposal site or to farmers' fields without treatment. The amount of mud produced per year in the city is between 3,534 and 7,442 m3. The physico-chemical characterization results reveal that the sludge from dry pits was more loaded with pollutants than that from wet pits. The sludge with a neutral characteristic and a high salinity is rich in ammonium, phosphorus, nitrates with a COD/BOD5 ratio equal to 2.1. Heavy metals including Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Manganese have a relatively apparent concentration in the sludge. The microbiological characterization showed the significant presence of fecal and pathogenic germs in the sludge. From this study, knowing of the sludge quantity and characteristics produced at Aneho, will allow choosing an appropriate treatment based on other local criteria.
To cope with threats from climate change, many adaptation strategies have been widely promoted and adopted by rice farmers. This study aims to assess the impact of adaptation strategies on the income of rice farmers. To this end, the En-dogenous Switching Regression (ESR) model has been estimated. Data are from a random sample of 144 rice farmers. The results obtained show that the ESR model is statistically significant at the 1% level. Complementary irrigation, cultural diversification and the intensive rice-growing system are adaptation strategies that have positive impacts on the net incomes of rice-growers. Cultural rotation is the only strategy that has a negative impact on the net income of rice farmers. Thus, these strategies are those on which the actors of the development of the sector must carry out more concrete actions on the view of establishing a real adaptation strategy capable of mitigating the effects of climate change and improving agricultural incomes in a context of reducing hunger, poverty and guaranteeing food security.
The choice of suitable (nature and quantity) amendments and the selection of varieties capable of limiting the transfert from the soil to certain crop organs are among the classic methods in phytoremediation. This present work aims to assess the effect of doses of Tithonia diversifolia and lime on the behavior and phytoavailability of copper on spinash culture. The trial was set up using the fully randomized five repeat system. The treatments consisted of 6 doses compost and 6 doses of lime compared to the unamended contaminated or amended control. The observation focused on the vegetation parameters and submitted to the analysis of variance. Before the test, the pH and the copper content of the soils were determined. Soil analysis results show that their pH is close to neutral, while the copper concentration is 3332 ppm in Tshamilemba soil, is 148 times higher than that of experimental field soils. The high copper content of soil in the Tshamilemba district did not lead to a revival of spinash growth, on the other hand an increase in the phytoaviability of copper. The reduction in copper content depends on the doses of amendments applied. This article has shown that the addition of amendments makes it possible to reduce the bioaccumulation of contaminated soil to pratice market gardening.
The study aims to integrate new information and communication technologies applied in pedagogical practice into university training. It consists of the implementation of distance learning devices via a platform and an interactive learning support (CD-Rom) for the benefit of students and also for secondary school teachers of Life and Earth Sciences, in the field of hydrogeology. These devices meet a great need among students and teachers in terms of training, and face the constraints (temporal, spatial and financial) that prevent them from attending a classroom training in this field. They provide distance training characterized by both communication and interaction, the use of mediatized teaching resources, relocation and autonomous management of training time. In this way, they solve the problem of absenteeism among _learners. This study presents the steps involved in the development of an E-Learning system, from the needs for study to its implementation and deployment. It makes it easy to deploy a system dedicated to online learning and collaborative work, because it corresponds perfectly to our needs (good communication and sharing of knowledge and know-how...).
The agricultural sector has managed to establish itself as an enabler for reviving Beninese economy without succeeding in gaining a place of choice in the mobilization of private funding for farmers benefits. On the basis of this observation, the research track taken within the framework of this scientific production consisted in questioning indicators of private financing for Beninese agriculture and the risks associated with access to decentralized financials systems credit services. To achieve this, activities reports and monitoring documents were subject to a continuous analysis. Results from this phase were used to define social indicators which were documented on the basis of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview guide for a sample of 499 informants. Carried out on the experience of the decentralized financial systems involved in the GIZ / ProFinA project, the research highlighted a weak trend in bank financing and the weight of family structures, the profile of credit seekers, social constructions and social and religious practices on the repayment of credits.
In the city of Garoua in North Cameroon, a study was conducted among 100 tomato producers. The aim was to describe the tomato production system in order to identify constraints and prospects for improvement. Surveys and observations with actors reveal that tomato is produced throughout the year; this activity is conducted by 90% men from the Far North of the country. The production tools are wrinkled. The tomato is produced under two cropping systems: 72% under logs and 28% in pickets. The use of fertilizers and insecticides varies from producer to producer and depends on the producer’s budget. therefore, the facilitation of access to agricultural credit and land and the creation of a participatory research platform involving (producers; extension workers; researcher) would help to improve the productivity of the vegetable industry in general and the tomato industry in particular in the region. Land insecurity; lack of funding and supervision are the main obstacles to improving tomato production.
Several studies have focused on the performance of women in entrepreneurship using the same measurement tools as those used to measure the performance of their male counterparts. However, many studies have shown the singularity of women's entrepreneurship, particularly with respect to the measurement of success. To bridge this gap, this paper aims to analyse the impact of factors specific to women entrepreneurs that determine their success in business. To achieve this objective, we used a sample of 142 women business owners, surveyed in three cities: Douala, Bafoussam and Yaounde. As estimation technique, we used a binary Logit model because of the dichotomous nature of the response to the question of whether a woman feels she has been successful or not. In order to reinforce the singular character of female entrepreneurship, we used two types of dependent variables: first, a so-called subjective variable, «Achieving flexibility between work and family lives» and an objective variable, «Annual income level». The results show that the model with «Achieving flexibility between work and family lives» as the dependent variable is better for predicting the success of women entrepreneurs than the model with «Annual income level» as the dependent variable. Moreover, these results show that globally; factors related to human capital are the key determinants of success for women entrepreneurs in Cameroon.