The education and learning process is considered complete after assessment and evaluation which usually comes at the end of the instructional development cycle. Due to the COVID 19 pandemic, most of the learning institutions have had to diversify their mode of operation including but not limited to online, distance learning and assessment. Despite the convenience of going on with the education as usual, online assessment presents a vast of challenges when it comes to quality and integrity. This paper examines the various ways of enhancing quality and objectivity in online assessment with a focus on concerns/challenges of online assessment, practice of online assessment in other parts of the world and the lessons Kenya can borrow from these countries to enhance quality in the online assessment. The paper is solely a desktop research that utilized a meta-interpretive research design to integrate findings and review results. All works reviewed were acknowledged. This study was anchored on the Active learning theory that is an improvement of the theory of constructivism. The paper is expected to help facilitate educationalists to conceptualize the notion of online assessment for quality education. Any institution that wants to use online assessment may also find it of great use. The research established that most of the challenges that are currently facing the online assessment could be solved through the use of webcams to vet if the students have accessed the exam room with unauthorized materials, facial recognition softwares to curb impersonation and Turnitin to detect plagiarism. There is dire need to enhance quality in the online assessment for transparency and objectivity. From the study, it is evident that academic institutions need to adopt and adapt to technological advancement and embrace online instructional methods. For objectivity, accuracy and quality, it is recommended that the learning institutions should adapt to the technological changes by investing in advanced remote invigilation systems. Regular random assessment can be adopted with an average of the cumulative scores used to evaluate a learner.
The cooperative is a movement of hope to enable the poor to improve their living conditions. It gives the opportunity to form an association and mobilize small energies in order to fight against injustices on the part of the rich. The basis of the essence of their principle is that they are owners-subscribers of the means and beneficiaries of the services. In the rapprochement with state institutions, cooperatives are subject to legal provisions as guarantees of protection of members’ assets. In their polymorphism, there are associative institutions in the traditional cooperative form based on the solidarity of members and also savings and credit institutions based on savings«. They work according to whether the members were owner-users or simply customer-users. This presupposes governance appropriate to the approach put in place.
This article is a reflection on those nuances on which the effectiveness in terms of services rendered to members depends.
The eruptions of the Nyiragongo volcano documented respectively on January 10, 1977, January 10, 2002 and May 21, 2021 were all fissural on its flanks characterized by the opening of the invoices followed by the effusion of very fluid lava flows.
hese fractures are more important on its southern flank. They are divided into three categories including the emissive fractures of the newly formed flows, the old fractures reopened or reactivated by the new eruption which are in certain places emissive and those formed by the seismicity comes after the eruption of volcano. Emissive fractures are very wide and deep, fractures and cracks resulting from seismic activity are narrow and non-emissive.
The old fractures (formed by the eruptions before 1977) were mapped by Thonnard, those of 2002 by Jean Christophe Komorowky of IPGP France and the Deformation service currently Department of Geodesy and the map of new fractures which has been updated by the team of the Department of Geodesy of volcanological observatory of goma.
These open fractures further north on the flank of the volcano enter a volcanic cone through a single wide and deep opening exiting it on the other side through a network of parallel fractures, which emit lava and are in some places covered by lava flows that come upstream.
The post-eruptive activity of the 2021 eruption, like the other two previous ones, was accompanied by strong seismicity, the epicentres of which were located in the east of the city of Goma and the western part of the city of Gisenyi (Rwanda) then in Lake Kivu. The fractures opened during this activity are oriented North-South like most of the others open to the North on the southern flank of Nyiragongo but have many branches, especially at the epicentres of the earthquakes.
Access to electrical energy is one of the essential levers of economic and social development. However, many Congolese do not have access to it. To reduce the gap of access to it, SNEL has introduced cashpower in the city of Bukavu. This is why the objective of this work is to evaluate the level of satisfaction of SNEL/Ibanda clients after the introduction of innovation. The results of the descriptive analysis of the customers’ satisfaction index indicate that the level of satisfaction is largely high for the cash power system (75%) and lower for the old system (47%). The ACP found that the main sources of satisfaction for prepayment customers were regular access to electricity (24/7) at an acceptable intensity, and low billing (94 Kwh at $10).
Zoukougbeu is a department located in the center-west of Ivory Coast which contains geological formations with gold mineralization highlighted by Tietto Minerals mining company during its mapping and drilling campaigns. The general objective of this study is to determine the petrographic characteristics of these formations and the associated gold mineralization. Thus, data acquisition consisted of collecting rock samples in the field from mapping and core drilling, followed by the macroscopic identification of these samples and then the making of thin sections for their microscopic characterization. Petrographic analysis reveals that these geological formations globally oriented NNE-SSW (Eburnean direction) consist of gneiss associated with plutonic intrusives (granodiorites, diorites, granites) deformed and mineralized in syngenetic gold bearing disseminated sulfides. These formations are crossed by faults and of quartz-albite-calcite veins (containing epigenetic gold bearing sulfides) trending NW-SE and E-W. All these rocks are crossed by unmineralized pegmatite veins trending E-W. The mineralization is mainly formed of pyrite and secondarily chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and native gold. Zoukougbeu rocks are affected by regional metamorphism of greenschist facies accompanied by hydrothermal alteration (pervasive and fissural) which have contributed to the concentration of mineralization like other Birimian gold occurrences in Ivory Coast and Africa. These geological formations are topped by a thick regolith profile due to supergene weathering.
Introduction: Psychosocial risks at work are defined as risks to mental, physical and social health created by employment conditions, organizational and relational factors likely to interact with mental functioning, our study had as a general objective to assess the impact of psychosocial factors among workers in the Ministry of Justice in the Republic of Guinea.
Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study lasting 6 months from january 1 to June 30. The study covered all workers in the justice ministry.
Results: The distribution of the psychological state of the participants by workstation reveals that the frequency of stress was very high among transplant staff (74.29%) lower (55%) among secretaries and (43.48) among penitentiaries, (34.85%) among administrators. The frequency was very low among socio-educational staff (16.67%) and contract workers (13.04%).
Conclusion: Psychosocial risks are frequent in the workplace, particularly in our study population. A good management policy and prevention of RPS must be developed by the various actors involved: the occupational physician in charge of staff health, the governing bodies of the Ministry of Justice as well as the workers.