A study on the nutritional and toxicological analyses of three wild plants, fruits of: Capsicum frutescens, Passiflora foetida and the leaves of Piper umbellatum were analyzed. In this study, it appears that these wild plants may be of value as a food supplement in regard to their content in crude proteins, lipids, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The fruits of Capsicum frutesceus are richer in crude ash (14.42%), protein (3.18%), vitamin B2 (1.46 g / 100 g), and iron (4,108 g/100 g). The fruits of Passiflora foetida are richer in water (75.49%); citric acid equivalent (17.732%), lipid (14g / 100g), vitamin B1 (4,98 g /100 g), vitamin C (17.6 g/100 g), calcium (2.28 g/100 g) and leaves of Piper umbellatum are richer in vitamin A (0.933 g/100 g), magnesium (1.787 g/100 g), phosphorus (0.016 g/100 g). However, these plants also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids and terpenes and sterols, trace toxic substance such as nitrate, nitrite and cyanide. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population of the city of Kisangani and its surroundings for the diversification of the diet to fight against the lack of certain nutrients.
The present study was undertaken with the aim of to characterize, according to physiognomic point of view, the vegetation communities in the UMA forest and to evaluate the influence of physico-chemical and pedo-morphological parameters in the spatial organization of floristic diversity in the UMA forest. Five vegetation communities were identified in the UMA forest which sharing many common species. The restriction of certain species of plots belonging to the diameter class ≥ 50 cm show a variation even on the level of arborescent layers in this forest. The floristic variability is mainly explained by the soil humidity in the Limbali mono-dominant vegetation communities in the western part. In the easten part, it is explained by the pH, the conductivity and the soil depth in the heterogeneous vegetation communities. However, in the transition forest, it is explained by the retention of the soil phosphorus. The UMA forest is classified among the semi-deciduous dense heterogeneous forests. The identified vegetation communities are inserted in the alliances Gilbertiodendrion Devred 1958 and Oxystigmo-Scorodophleion Lebrun & Gilbert 1954 in the class of Strombosio-Parinarietea Lebrun & Gilbert 1954. The Guinean-Congolese element represents more than 82% of listed species, of which the endemic species of the center of Guinean-Congolese endemism accounts for at least 90% of species. The presence of Afro-American elements (2%) shows stochastic transgression. The sedentary species are abundant in the plant communities of the Western part, while the pioneers and cicatricial species are abundant in the plant communities of the Eastern part.
This article deals with issues on the weight and monetary system of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in Azerbaijan. The basic weight unit of that time called as the "Caucasian shekel" had its parallel functioning in the form of payment equivalents. The Bronze bracelets merged on the basis of that system. They functioned as money and at the same time as the weight standard. The article presents a new version of the system with respect to the weight of that time.
According to Gaston Bachelard, the scientific character is constantly a consequence of a reform of the reason and the reality. Indeed, the imagination is necessary in this permanent confrontation of the experience with the reasoning. It is in the worry to make spring the new that is progressively separated truths that don't firmly hold. The déconstruction helps us to explain better this dialectics because, in this process, one doesn't stop to a simple opposition of facts; when déconstructing, one decides better while separating what invites less. The new openings whose science becomes tributary in terms of mutation, explanation and revolution constitute values then thanks to the ' logos', to the specific ‘allocutoire’ power of the science.
The nutritional effect of two diets from local ingredients has been assessed in order to observe the survival and growth of larvae of Clarias gariepinus from artificial insemination. These two diets containing each one 40% of protein from animal (A) and vegetable (B) with 11.61 Kj.g-1 and 12.71 Kj.g-1 of energy respectively for diets A and B were used to feed the larvae during 21 days. The results showed that the food used from local products is acceptable for the growth of larvae from their first age. These two diets (A and B) show that there’s no significant difference. Note that the area where this study has been conducted does not present an obstacle to any farmer anxious to produce larvae of Clarias gariepinus.
Assessing the degree of pollution of the river Kintama by the use of benthic macroinvertebrates is the theme of this work. It was made from samples taken between July and August 2016 Idjwi island territory to characterize this said river from possible pollution. The levy was followed by sorting at the bank, identification and preservation of specimens to the laboratory for teaching and research unit in Hydrobiology applied PSI / Bukavu. Wildlife identified in this work consists of 1834 individuals corresponding to 16 families belonging to 3 main faunal groups (annelids, mollusks, arthropods). The number of benthic settlement showed that Trichoptera, Diptera, Oligochaeta, Odonata, the are dominant. Decapod crustaceans, beetles and molluscs constitute only a small fraction of the total fauna. Values of Standardized Global Biological Index ranked the water upstream and downstream of Kintama in the category of medium and bad ecological quality for those intermediate stations. On the whole, the waters of this river are medium ecological quality. Furthermore, analysis of stand structure through Shannon Weaver index and equitability showed that Kintama river is characterized by macrobenthic fauna less diverse and generally unbalanced. The index of Margalef proved that Kabati station (1,596) followed by the mouth of Lake Kivu (1,411) and Lugano (1,368 are richer compared to resorts Institute Ziwa Kivu (0.882) and Deck Kintama (0.752) poorest taxa. note that all these values were lower than 2 which means that taxonomic richness is low everywhere. the results obtained in this study, conducted in a river crossing a rural area, have seen a situation that tends to a calamity of the water quality of the Kintama and especially in its middle section.
The results of this study can also be used to conserve biodiversity and restoring these ecosystems continually impacted.
Background: Household or individual food consumption measurement is an issue in the South-Kivu province, DRC. Nutrition professionals and researchers are struggling to perform a 24h recall or any other assessment method due to lack of information regarding how to estimate the food intake of their respondents in a context where the local food contents as used in the markets are not labeled and their weight and/or volume are not known. Moreover, many housekeepers are illiterate, they can’t use weighing scales for the foods consumed, and therefore they can’t provide information about the consumed food amounts.
Objective: In this study, we suggest an original approach for improving the food consumption assessment by converting the local food containers in international system units such as grams. This would facilitate the nutrition consultation and prescription and better understand the nutrition situation at clinical and community levels.
Design: In this three step approach, the food containers used in local markets for specific foods were measured full (bombed) of the related foods. 3 repeated measures were obtained for each container on the spot in the market, and the average weight was calculated and reported in a table. We describe how to use the collected data in a three step procedure, including 1) How to conduct the interview 2) How to use the local food container measurement data in estimating the food consumption of the respondents in grams and 3) How to use a food composition table to estimate energy and nutrients intakes.
Conclusion and recommendations: The proposed approach is to be understood as a first step in in the resolution of the challenge of food consumption assessment. The next step would be the production of a brochure listing all the food container measures and their conversion in international unit system, to be utilized by the nutrition professionals, researchers and students. This approach might be extended to other regions of DRC and other African countries as they all face same problem.
A study on the urban growth during the time between 2000 to 2016 was undertaken in a forest locality of the republic of Congo, the town of Ouesso. Landsat images covering this period had been selected and treated thanks to the software ENVI 4.6.1 and ArcGis 10.2. Supervised classification was used and applied to the zone of study. The results of this study indicate that the surface of the city passed from 608.375 ha in 2000 to 1527 ha in 2016. The losses of the forests due to the urban growth passed from 261.63 ha during the time of 2000-2014 to 657.03 ha during the time of 2014 to 2016. The demographic growth, poverty, agriculture, residential spreading out and the accelerated municipalization which took place in this locality would explain the losses of the forest surfaces observed in this locality. The anarchistic urban growth in wet tropical zone could be the source of significant flows of GES following the changes of use of the grounds.
The mining extraction occupies an important place in Democratic Republic of Congo. It is an economic activity that touches some thousand of Congolese. In the North-Kivu Province, to the occurrence, the mining exploitation is a source of the essential incomes for a few hundreds of the thousands of families. Thus, in Masisi territory, the casual artisanal mining exploitation uses more 3000 young, of which a big number comes of other regions in search of a permanent or seasonal use. While undertaking this survey, we wanted to detect the different dark ways in which left the income of these mining products of our object of survey and to measure the level of investment, of saving as well as the mind of initiative in relation to the creation of other units of production of the population of Rubaya. To harvest the data the technique of the questionnaire as well as the methods statistical, inductive and comparative us useful summer. Also, the software packages Eviews 3.1 and SPSS 16.0 allowed us to make analyses économétriques of the survey. The results show that the mining extraction of Rubaya doesn't constitute the main activity for the population of Rubaya because we found that there is also the mining operators who exercise other activities such as : trade, agriculture, raising and the salaried work. The impact of the artisanal mining exploitation on the life style of the creuseurs of Rubaya is positive according to the found results. We met that so much Didgers don't consume all of their income, but on the contrary, they also save as investment.
In this work, the objective is to determine the reasons and consequences of the deforestation and its impact on the socio-sanitary life in the Territory of Masisi.
The results show that the factors to the basis of the deforestation are Research of the heating wood, Research of the materials of constructions, Wood for the resale. The related consequences are: Loss on health, Change of the climates and Reduction of the production because of rain. Reforestation would be desirable to improve the output of the environment in this entity.
Wetlands and their biodiversity species have been undergoing an alarming degradation in the past recent years. The overall objective has been to determinate the various invasive plant species found in the study area. Floristic inventories based on the development of transects and quadrats helped to make surveys by using coefficients of abundance-dominance and sociability. Physico-chemical parameters of the Nyong river were measured. Species richness of study sites amounts to 20 species distributed in 17 families. Results shown that the distribution of macrophytes varies with Shannon diversity index, from 3.193695 (Ekombitie/Mbega) to 1.263136 (CDE/CAMWATER). Echinochloa pyramidalis (51 %) is the most abundant specie in the study sites. The result shown the causes and factors limiting the potential of the biotope of the Nyong River. It has been clearly shown that invasive plants contribute in a significant way to euthrophication of the river: Echinocloa pyramidalis, 51%; Ipomea aquatic, 18.31%; Nymphaea lotus,12.83%; Leersia hexandra, 9.15%; Commelina benghalensis, 9.15%. The ecosystem approach for the better management of this site is proposed. From this study we therefore open another parenthesis for research which is based on managing wastes within the Mbalmayo council area and monitoring the quantity and quality of the waste stream leaving Yaounde and other environs into the Nyong River. This will help to reduce the pollution of this river, monitor point source and non-point source pollution sources and hence to reduce the proliferation of macrophytes since one of the best options of ecosystem restoration is preventing nutrient loading.
Mashamba open pit mine is located 10 km southeast of Kolwezi town, in one of the richest copper areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The copper deposit block model has been run through mine optimization and provided a life of mine (LOM) of 6 years within four major pushbacks. The optimization process involved the use of NPV scheduler Datamine software (Lersch-Grossman algorithm). The ultimate pit and pushback designs have been executed using Minesight software. The haulage analysis has been conducted for the entire LOM of the deposit using the Minesight Haulage tool. Initial simulation of truck fleet size was done assuming a truck availability of 85%. However, it has since been observed that in practice, 85% availability over the entire life of the mine will be an unrealistic target it was therefore interesting to conduct a set of scenarios using the Minesight haulage tool to vary the availability and to compare the fleet size variation. In this paper, curve-fitting techniques have been used to observe, analyse, and establish a mathematical relationship to correlate dump truck availability and fleet size data, and to determine how strongly the two variables are correlated. Despite the fact that the mathematical equation and correlation factor calculated in this case study are not expected to lead to a replacement of haulage software packages, they were found to be helpful tools for quickly predicting the fleet size (number of trucks required for the entire mine life) based on a given set of truck availabilities at Mashamba open pit.
The aim of this study is to detect in vitro activity of pectinolytic enzymes (trans-eliminase polygalacturonase and pectin) and cellulolytic five fungal species responsible for rotting apples: Alternaria alternata (E and S), Penicillium sp. (P), Trichoderma sp. (Tr), Trichothecium roseum (Tc) and Fusarium avenaceum (F).
Lyase activity petine of these fungi is low during the first days of pectin degradation process but increases with age of cultures. The most important activity was recorded in Alternata alternata (0,146 U) and Trichothecium roseum (0,100 U) followed by Trichoderma sp. (0,078 U). The lowest activity was observed in Penicillium sp. and Fusarium avenaceum.
The estimated activity of polyganlagturonase is important during the first days of pectin degradation by fungi and decreases during this process. Alternata showed a very significant activity (0,1467U) compared to other fungi. However, the polygalacturonase activity is very lost in Trichothecium roseum (0,0012U) and the important cellulolytic activity was detected in Fusarium avenaceum (0,0384 U).
Need for cost-benefit analysis, productivity and efficiency in education has actually been x-rayed systematically, the various key words were precisely explained for a layman to understand. The social aspect of cost-benefit analysis, measurement of productivity, issues connected with productivity and efficiency, link between productivity and efficiency, low external productivity in the face of high internal efficiency and relationship between external productivity and cost benefit ratio were highlighted. Finally, conclusion and recommendations were made.
Curriculum implementation is the act of translating the curriculum document into action in the classroom by the teacher and so concluding any issue on curriculum implementation without mentioning the teacher will be like one going for cry and leaving his/her eyes behind, like an Igbo adage will say. This is to say that curriculum implementation is the arduous work of the teacher. The teacher's duty as a curriculum implementer cannot be over emphasized and so the paper on curriculum implementation and the teacher: challenges and way forward. The paper examines the concept of curriculum, the concept of curriculum implementation, curriculum implementation and the effective teacher, challenges of the teacher as a curriculum implementer which include: Non-involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and development processes, conducive school environment among others were highlighted and discussed. Based on the findings, possible way forward/ remedies were made which among others include: those teachers should be involved in curriculum planning; the school environment should be pupils/student-friendly.
In order to test the antibacterial activity of extracts of some medicinal plants used for treatment of some bacterial infections in Kisangani, study was conducted on twenty traditional recipes using watery extracts and concentrated aqueous extracts. Aqueous crude extracts were obtained according to the method of preparation of traditional healers. The antibacterial activity was determined using classic method of diffusion on agar. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya and Psidium guayava presented a maximum inhibition diameter of 20 mm on one crude of Staphylococcus. With concentrated aqueous crude extracts, the highest inhibition diameter of 19 mm was obtained with the association of Citrus limon and Aframomum laurentii.
The T Student test applied to our results showed that the difference is high significant between the two extracts of plants. Future research in this area should be promoted to make available for people effective and cheap products against germs which become more and more resistant to common antibiotics in Kisangani.
The Mashamba East open pit mine is a copper-cobalt operation located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in the mineral-rich Katanga Province 10 km southeast of Kolwezi town. Previously owned by Gecamines (a state-owned mining company), Mashamba East pit was recently separated from the neighbouring Mashamba West deposit, which now belongs to a Chinese company (Sicomines). The challenges in the mine optimization and the pushback approach will be to take into account the presence of a waste dump on the south of the deposit, the small distance between the pit and the property limits to the east and west of the deposit, and finally, the presence of a tailings storage facility to the north of the pit,. Running the input data through Datamine NPV Scheduler showed that it is possible to design operational pushbacks to produce a well-balanced schedule and mining sequence. Mashamba East pit is located in a confined area, and this paper outlines the approach taken to achieve a viable mining sequence, taking into account the abovementioned restrictions. NPV Scheduler software will be used to optimize and determine pushbacks, while Minesight software will be used to design the ultimate pit and the operational pushbacks.
Malaria remains a word problem and a major preoccupation of public health for tropical countries, particularly for Africa’s Sub-Saharan countries. Released International financing to fight against malaria clearly increased going from more less U.S. $ 100 million in 2000 to U.S. $ 1.94 billion in 2013. It is worth mentioning the DRC and Nigeria, all on their own represent the heaviest burden of malaria, 40% of the world total. In South Kivu, about one million of new cases are recorded every year, according to the WHO office in Bukavu. The release of the proportion of school absenteeism due to malaria can realize his tragic contribution to ruin education and even the development of the student. After the surveys were conducted in schools with clinics, it emerges that malaria alone takes 30.8% of school absenteeism. Stakeholders and the public should be better informed of the consequences and enforce measures to prevent malaria.
Context: Malaria remains a word problem and a major preoccupation of public health for tropical countries, particularly for Africa’s Sub-Saharan countries. Released International financing to fight against malaria clearly increased going from more less U.S. $ 100 million in 2000 to U.S. $ 1.94 billion in 2013. It is worth mentioning the DRC and Nigeria, all on their own represent the heaviest burden of malaria, 40% of the world total. In South Kivu, about one million of new cases are recorded every year, according to the WHO office in Bukavu.
Objective: To analyze the risk
Methodology: by a cohort study of 3,337 people observed in 422 households from January fist to December 31 th 2013. The last approach was completed by economic analysis from Audibert method. The data were collected from households, BCZS, hospitals and schools.
Results: the people who do not sleep under mosquito-nets filled with insecticide are more than twice exposed (RR : 2.5 ) to malaria than those sleeping under mosquito-nets filled with insecticide; the people sleeping under ITN, but living in a non-cleaned up environment are more than four times (RR : 4.2 ) exposed to malaria than those sleeping under ITN, but living in a cleaned up environment.
Conclusion: the cleaning up of environment combined with the use of ITN constitutes a very efficient strategy. It can be added that the Remediation joined the use of IBD and reveals the very effective strategy. He added only use of ITN is also efficient in the reduction of morbidity.
The acquisition of the digestive system concepts is still problematic. In this study, we assessed whether 3rd year secondary school learners have acquired and assimilated these concepts at the end of the module. The results we obtained showed that young learners have problems in acquiring these concepts to varying degrees. The role of aliments, the organs and functions of the digestive system, and the phenomena of digestion were relatively acquired by the students. However, the dangers threatening the digestive system and the means of prevention remained unknown for the great majority of these learners. We have also found that learners confused with the digestive system and the respiratory system in some representations.
This research established the socioeconomic profile of mendicants and analyzed the socio-economic, cultural and political causes of female begging in the town of Zinder.
A documentary work and a field survey allowed the collection of qualitative and quantitative data. The survey used a questionnaire administered to 100 beggars and a maintenance guide that involved 10 imams of the large Zinder mosques. The statistical data thus obtained were used to produce tables and figures for the illustrations. Fieldwork also resorted to direct observation, which helped to identify districts housing beggars and places of begging mapped using geographic coordinates.
The results of the study show that poverty, disability, the resignation of husbands, social and political tolerance, lack of solidarity of the State etc. Are all reasons leading women to begging. To these causes is added the search for easy gain benefiting from a socioreligious context favorable to the practice of almsgiving. Hence the tendency towards the professionalization of begging, which is banned by Islam and prohibited by the Nigerian penal code.