The inventory of wood species producing the woods of works merchandised in the different big markets and clear soups in the city of Bukavu with the help of a questionnaire of investigation submitted to the different merchants lasted 6 months (June to December 2014), and cover some months of the two seasons thus of which the rainy (September, October, November, December 2014) and the dry (June, July and August 2014). To the whole 16 species of woods were inventoried of which Pinus, Cypressus lagitanica, Eucalyptus sp, Ekebergia rueppeliana , Lebrunia Buchaie, Piptadeniastrum africanum , Ocotea michelsonii, Lovoa trichilloides, without mark, Grevellea robusta, Syzigium guineense, Entadrophragma excelsum, Milicia excelsa, Chrysophyllum gorogosanum, Zanthroxylum giletii and Cedrellea. Nindja presents a big number of wood species producing the sold work woods in the different markets of woods to Bukavu with 12 species is 75%, follow-up of Bunyakiri (10 species are 62,5%), of Mwenga and Kalonge with 9 species (either 56,25%) and of Walungu and Idjwi with 5 species (either 31,25%). the smallest numbers observe themselves to Burhinyi and Luhwndja (4 species are 25%); Katana and Kabare with each 2 species are 12,5%, and in short, Nzibira with 1 species is 6,25%.
The management of the issue of medical and pharmaceutical waste is embarrassing to many countries. Morocco does not escape this reality. Since the first circular in 1991, Morocco has developed the legal arsenal because they pose risks to health and environment. The objective of our study is to characterize the risk of bacteriological solid waste of care units in Mohamed V hospital. The sample includes five Care units with significant waste production: intensive, the burnt, the Emergent, the Respiratory and central operating room. This hospital is a regional focus with a bed capacity of 388 and serves a population of 2 186 000 citizen. Twice, it won the first prize of quality competition organized annually by the Ministry of Health. We advocated as methodology the analysis samples in medical laboratory. The samples are as follows: Ten samples from the Medical waste before treatment at ECODAS T300 grinder and five after theme treatment. Pathogens were obvious from the analysis before the treatment, which is normal. However, an alarming point is their persistence even after treatment with the grinder. These results raise the question of the effectiveness of treatment systems by grinding in general and in particular for ECODAS T300: which it is designed for sterilization (complete destruction of germs) or simply for disinfecting (reduction of microbial burden)?
This study was conducted to determine the effect of foliar iron applications on fruit quality and yield of tomato under unheated greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were treated with foliar iron applications at different concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg.l-1). Iron was applied with spraying eight times during the vegetation at 7-day intervals 40 days after planting. In the study, it was determined that foliar applications of iron showed positive effect on some fruit characteristics. Fruit number and yield of medium and large sized fruits were significantly increased in the 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 treatments, which subsequently resulted in an increase of marketable yield. Iron treatments had no effect on pH of fruit tomato. Whereas, firmness and total soluble solids increased with foliar iron sprays. According to our results, applications of 1000 mg.l-1 iron should be recommended in order to improve marketable yield in tomato production.
Among the waste treatment methods, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for the degradation of fermentable household wastes into useful products such as biogas and high quality compost. Therefore, we conducted a comparative experimental study between the anaerobic digestion of fermentable household waste and anaerobic co-digestion of fermentable household waste and septic tank sludge. The experiment was conducted in two tanks of 80 liters. The first tank was filled only with 14 kg of biodegradable household waste and the second was filled with 14 kg of household waste mixed with 4.2 L fresh septic tank sludge in a ratio Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) of septic tank sludge on Volatile Organic Matter of waste (=MOV) (VSS / MOV = 0.3). The evolution of the COD yields a balance on the degradation of organic matter and biogas production. Anaerobic digestion and anaerobic co-digestion took place at a temperature of 25C° in two stages so that the first step in a 80 L tank, stops at acidogenesis and that the second step (methanogenesis) takes place in another 10 L digester. The results yield that 1.3Nm3 methane are produced from the anaerobic digestion of waste and 1.8 Nm3 methane are produced from co-digestion of waste and faecal sludge.
The Alluvials formations of the plain of Tadighoust (Goulmima region) have been affected by the effects of dryness and excessive drought that led to the depletion of the particular quaternary slick surface. Increasing water demand needed to power up the population and irrigated areas require looking for water sources from deep reservoirs. Hydrogeological studies were previously conducted are mainly based on the potentiometric analysis of the works, but they have not helped to define precisely the outline of transfer of deep flows in this region. The deep circulation is distributed in a wide heterogeneity that can't be defined as from the introduction of the geophysical technique. We therefore undertook measures electrical and electromagnetic prospecting at this plain, in order to highlight the main areas of deep fracturing in connection with the preferential water circulation and favor the establishment of productive wells.
Along the valley of Oued Mellah and Oued N'fifikh Triassic-Liassic flush a serie rests unconformably on a micaceous sandstones-Cambro-Ordovician basement. The Triassic serie begin with training ferruginous silty sandstones, conglomerate, which succeeds by lower red shales passing basalt flows. These formations are overlain by upper red shales and gypsiferous licks. The whole is capped by Neogene limestones. Mineral deposits such as salt, clay, gypsum and iron, are genetically related to detrital formations of Liassic and Triassic age. The origins of the mineralization will be discussed. The use of some sites such as quarries clay raises many problems that affect both safety and public health and the quality of the environment and landscape. Redevelopment projects have been proposed.
Anticoagulants are widely used pesticides in agriculture against rodents. The emergence of strains of rats resistant to warfarin led to the introduction of a new group of anticoagulant rodenticides: derivatives of 4-hydroxycoumarin (Brodifacoum, Bromadiolone, Difenacoum ...). The deliberate ingestion of large quantities of these products known by their long duration of action causes a disruption of several weeks to several months of hemostasis. CASE REPORT: 20 year old comes to the emergency CAMU with a tremor and coma, requiring intubation and its implementation under mechanical ventilation. At 24 h after awakening, we note the presence of hematuria associated with a collapse of prothrombin (16%), prolonged partial thromboplastin time kaolin (T/M: 30s/50s), a collapse of fibrinogen (1.2 g/l) with a reduction factor of the Vitamin K dependent clotting II, VII, IX and X. The toxicological analysis of patient urine by HPLC shows the presence of brodifacoum CONCLUSION: Brodifacoum poisoning is relatively serious. Research and dosage of anti-vitamin K anticoagulants by HPLC with diode array detector, must be requested before any disturbance of hemostasis of undetermined origin. Treatment with vitamin K should be installed early in effective dose from the decreased prothrombin and must be prolonged.
This work was performed to investigate the potential allelopathic effects of Ziziphus spina-christi aqueous extracts (AE) on the seed germination and seedling growth of Triticum durum L. and Raphanus sativus L. Plant materiel (leaves) were collected from five ecotypes (INRGREF, Dgéuche, Kébeli, Nafta and Tozeur). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents have been done by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and colorimetric assay respectively. The germination efficiency, plumule and radicule length of Triticum durum and Raphanus sativus were completely inhibited at the highest concentration (100 mg/L) of aqueous extracts. Raphanus sativus was more sensitive (89.92% - 85.29%), while Triticum durum was more adopted (90.699% - 88.17%) to aqueous extracts. Extracts were more effective in reducing the early seedling growth than in suppressing the seed germination. The inhibitory effect of these extracts occurred much more on the root length. Considerable differences in total phenolic contents (860.20 µgEAG/gDW) and flavonoids (1989.52 µgEQ/gMS) were found. The Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extracts could justify the use of this specie as an herbicide and can give a great success in agriculture.
We propose an alternative solution to plastic from petrochemical origin, with biodegradable and compostable plastic, which comes from waste paper. We present a new method of recovering waste paper to obtain cellulose acetate. The composition of papers is more than 80% of cellulose. Our objective is the recovery of cellulose by synthesizing a derivative that is cellulose acetate derivative with high degree of substitution via direct acetylation using acetic anhydride. So the optimization of experimental parameters influencing the acetylation reaction (temperature, reaction time, report (acetic acid / cellulose anhydride) were conducted. The cellulose of waste paper was treated with acetic anhydride and catalytic amount of sulfuric acid to obtain cellulose acetate. The results confirmed the identity with literature.
Despite of the multiples usages of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Benin, Sugar- cane still neglected by research and development. National data base revealed a decline of Les the production from 2010 (99231.5 tones) to 2014 (71017 tones). In Benin, eight (Lokossa, Athiémé, Bopa, Houéyogbé, Grand-popo, Comé, Sèmè-podji et Copargo) were considered as the major sugarcane production in Benin with Sèmè-Podji district as principal zone of its production. Surveyed in 52 villages selected through producing district showed that for the most (79.2% of responses) sugarcane contribute for income generating. In generale, sugarcane is used like food but participate also in treatment of many of some infections like malaria (36.3% of responses), miscarriage (5.6% of responses), women painful menses (3.2% of responses) and gonococcus (2.8% of responses). Sugarcane production is subject to ten (10) biotic and abiotic constraints. Among these constraints the most important were pests attack (40 % of responses), rodents (30% of responses), sensibility of some varieties to weeds (24.7% of responses) and to drought (24.7% of responses). Although sugarcane producers did not mention the susceptibility of some varieties to diseases, direct observation in field on 36205 plants revealed 61.3% plants infested and rust (68.7%), coal (16.4%), chlorite’s streak (9.1%) and leaves scald (5.8%) were found as the most disease which were observed in the sugarcane field. Practices cultural and traditional seed system were documented and their applications are contributing to an increasing of sugarcane production and to maintain existing diversity in Benin.
The General aim of this work was to contribute to the improvement or amelioration of the taking in care of the tuberculose generally in BUKAVU town and particularly in KADUTU area of health and its specific aims were the following: To identify the sanitarian formations that take the tucuberculose in care in KADUTU area of health ; to release the eventual obstacles or causes of inaccessibility in front of the care ; to evaluate the level of implication of the treatment strategy that can be observed and to evaluate the level of personal knowledge healing and the patients in tuberculose materiel. We have driven an analytic and transversal study. The population of study is made of all patients with microscopy pulmonary tuberculose (TPM+) under the treatment that we have conducted in kadutu area of health during our research period and the prestataries or beneficiaries of cares which take care of them. We have submitted a questionnaire of enquiry to our study of population in order to manage this study .After the treatment and analysis, the result is that 72,3% of patients alternate of the taking of medicines at home, 33,3 % take the medicines every day in the sanitarian formations , 33,3% take twice a week and 6,6 % take once a week ; Inorder to reach the sanitarian formations ,the distance to go through is the principal obstacle that patients reach in the persecution or pursuit of the treatment (70% patients have approved this) ; at 20 % are effectuated the home visits and not effectuated to 80% which is a negative effect in cases of patients, for the measure of recuperation of irregulars to the cares of renouncement cases , the result of our study proves that 60% of healings don't proceed to the reach of these cases. But apart from that, this has also a negative impact on the following of patients. By opposition of these results , the program of fighting against the tuberculose recommend that the patients must take medicines every day in the medical structure and the absence of only one day to the treatment is against the measure s of recuperation (written invitation, home visit) done by the nurses ,family members, community members other patients. To sum up, the taking in care of tuberculose in the kadutu area of health is not effective.
The issue of exhibitionism among the present day adolescents has become a major source of concern to our many adults in our society, therefore this study examined the efficacy of Assertiveness Training (AT) as a technique that could be adopted to reduce exhibitionism tendency of senior secondary female students in Lagos metropolis. Ninety randomly selected senior secondary school class one constitutes the sample of the study. The study adopted pretest, post- test control group quasi-experimental design with 2x2x2 factorial matrix. Adolescent Exhibitionism Scale (AES) and Adolescent Personal Data Inventory (APDI) Self-Concept Section A were the two instruments employed in the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated and analysed in this study. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and i-test. The findings of the study confirmed the effectiveness of assertiveness training in reducing significantly the exhibitionism tendency of female adolescent students in Lagos. Hence, it is recommended that efforts should be made especially by school counsellors to make use of this technique to curb the problem of adolescents exhibitionism in society.
Growth is the fundamental and universal process of life of any living organism. Human growth always has remarkable attention for the physical anthropologists as well as the health scientists. On basis of growth we can assess the health status of children which is the need of any country under national health policy. Therefore, such study is important for the policy makers for the formulation of various health plans and policies. Tribals constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population and for providing better health care facility, such study is very important. Keeping this in view, the present study has been carried out among 383 Korku & 338 Gond girls (aged 6-18 years) of Bhimpur block of Betul district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The included measurements are height, weight, sitting height, circumferences such as head, arm, chest and calf; biceps, triceps and calf skin folds. Similar type of growth trends has been observed among both the tribal girls as they reside in same type of ecological condition and socio-economic & nutritional status. Such study may be helpful for betterment of their health status.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between satisfaction with life and perceived social support of parents having children with Intellectual Disabilities. For this purpose, 66 parents were approached. The present study was conducted in different special schools located in Karachi. Initially, permission was taken from the authorites of the organizations, further, participants were informed about the consent containing information regarding the purpose of the research including confidentiality and their right to withdraw from the research at any time. Subsequently, the researcher asked them to fill the Demographic Sheet followed by Satisfaction With Life Scale and Multidimensional Social Support Scale. Results indicate that satisfaction which is person's personal evaluation of self is related to the support that they perceive from others. Support gives us relief and work as an asset when someone is in a stipulation of dissatisfaction. Furthermore, supplimentary results reflect that social support is a predictor of satisfaction among parents. When parents perceive that they are getting support from society, they would be satisfied with their lives and when they perceive that they are not supported by the society, they would be dissatisfied. The identification of underlying factors generates the findings to bring the fact to light that ample attention should be paid to the aspect of parents' emotional and social life so that they might be able to control their emotional weakness and which will help them to provide a healthier atmosphere at home to their children and family as well.
This paper aims at a morpho-semantic analysis and socio-cultural interpretation of some Idjwi island pygmies'names related to antonymous circumstances. Names are most of the time attributed to pygmies according to the circumstances that surrounded the birth. Like other Africans, particularly the bantu, pygmies consider the name as a global reality in the sense that it implicitly relate the circumstances of the birth: living conditions of the new baby's parents, the physical conditions, the time of the new baby's birth. Pygmies are not discriminated through their names because they carry the same names as other members of other ethnic groups arround them. However, discrimination can be seen through the aspect of social relationships with the other ethnic groups. For instance, the bantu say that "Omurhwa arhajeka", i.e. a pygmy does not go at home. That is to say a pygmy cannot be married to a non pygmy, otherwise all the family members of the latter must die. Thus, the carrier of the name tends to behave accordingly in the society. This shows that a name has an impact to the future of the carrier. This paper tries to shed some light in this point.
The several study about conception of different geological concepts has been much research in science education. All this research agrees that pupils come to class with the initial conception that could be an obstacle to the acquisition of these concepts. The initially aims of this work identify the Moroccan pupil's conceptions in second year of college about the volcano concept. The methodology based on a questionnaire to a sample of pupils before any official courses on the volcano concept. The results of our study show that students in majority have the initial conception on volcanoes. We also identified correlations between the initial conception of these pupils and those of futures teachers of life and Earth sciences, and those conceptions between the French and Lebanese pupils and teachers.
The determinants that influence the mode of disposal of household solid waste were studied in the cities of Parakou, Djougou, Kandi and Malanville in northern Benin. Sex, age, educational level, marital status, income, household size, socio-professional category, type of neighborhood, type of habitat, cities are the variables taken into account and analyzed by the Chi2 test and logistic regression. The results showed little overall trend varies from one city to another household to evacuate their garbage directly in nature (χ2 = 1.188; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.756> 0.05). Moreover, no statistically significant association was detected between the mode of waste disposal and sex (χ2 = 1.267; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.737> 0.05), age of household heads (χ2 = 2.868; DF = 4; P-Value = 0.580> 0.05), marital status (χ2 = 7.710, DF = 9; P-Value = 0.564> 0.05); household size (χ2 = 4.688; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.196> 0.05). In the cities studied, only in Parakou, χ2 = 18.275; DF = 7; P-Value = 0.011 <0.05 and Djougou, χ2 = 17.108; DF = 9; P-Value = 0.047 <0.05, very significant links were found between the mode of waste disposal and the occupational category of household heads. Note also that no relationship was statistically observed between the mode of waste disposal and the level of heads of household income in Djougou, χ2 = 3.909; DF = 4; P-Value = 0.418> 0.05); Kandi, χ2 = 2.826; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.419> 0.05) and Malanville, χ2 = 2.482; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.479> 0.05). But in the four cities, 100% very highly significant association was observed between link waste disposal and education level of household heads at the global level (χ2 = 28.328; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.000 <0.05). Logistic regression analysis also revealed a strong correlation between educational level (χ2 = 9.439; DF = 3; P-Value = 0.024 <0.05 and mode of waste disposal in North Benin.
The purpose of this article is to examine the correlations between various parameters involved in the management of quality and management control, to understand the actual operation of both functions in the companies' logistics and transportation sectors in Morocco.
Investment in the practices of human resources is required more and more like one of the solutions that can enable companies to increase their productivity and enhance their competitiveness, it is even a question of one of the strategic means of which have nowadays leaders to deal with a constantly changing environment and improve the profitability of their business. The survey carried out aims to know the practices of human resource management in large Moroccan companies. The results of this study show that large companies do not have the skills and attributes necessary to support these functions.
This study aimed to identify fishermen and their fishing gears used, identify fished species and their maturity sizes. Data were collected in six sites of lake Tanganyika inclunding Kalundu, Mulongwe, Kilomoni, Makobola, Kirimba and Kasekezi. The sampling was conducted from April to June 2010. The fish samples were collected from commercial fishing. 1440 fishermen were recorded that 67% were married and more than 33% of fishermen are aged of 20 to 29 years. Fishermen use lift nets of 4 to 5 mm of mesh, gill nets of 8 mm of mesh, beach seine nets of 4 mm of mesh, mosquito nets of 1 mm of mesh and fishing lines of 100 m of length having 90 to 100 hooks. 167 lift nets, 97 gill nets, 44 beach seines, 184 fishing lines and 5 mosquito nets were recorded during the period of investigation. A total of 1208 specimens belonged to 3 commercial species were sexed and weighted. Their length was measured and their maturity size was determined. Stolothrissa tanganicae was highest abundant with 520 individuals followed by Limnothrissa miodon with 464 and Lates stappersii with 224. On 100% individuals caught of these three species; 42.09% were immature. The first maturity size of S. tanganicae, L. miodon and L. stappersii was respectively of 63.09 mm; 77.45mm and 247.92 mm of length. The mean price of 1Kg for L. stappersii varied between 3.6 and 4 US$, while 1Kg for S. tanganicae and L. miodon cost 2.22 US$ and 1.66 US$ respectively.
To fight against climate change, one of the most important ways is that of reconstituting or rehabilitation of forest cover destroyed by human activities. The Banco National Park is a typical example of managed forest, because it having undergone silvicultural enrichment with many timber species which, niangon (Tarrietia utilis Sprague) introduced by Martineau method. Thus, 10% of the 20 ha plantation of this species were sampled in the Banco National Park that in 2 ha distributed on 8 plots of 0.25 ha. The collected parameters concerned stems quality, their status and health conditions. It appears from this study that the niangon behaves quite well in the Banco National Park despite the absence of maintenance after the establishment of plantations. Indeed, on 199 feet met in 2 hectares inventoried, approximately 44.5% are emerging in relation to surrounding trees and almost all of the trees are healthy (99%). The average height of the stem is 12.8 m with an average annual increase in diameter of 0.55 cm. The Martineau method can therefore be considered as niangon enrichment technology for a sustainable management of this commercial species.
Created in 1954 by the colonial authorities and erected as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1996, the W Park (1,023,000 ha) is spread over Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso. The goal through this classification is to protect biodiversity. For added protection, the Niger erea part is framed by Wildlife Tamou Total Reserve (140 000 ha), the Dosso Partial Reserve (306 000 ha) and a buffer zone, shared between the rural districts of Tamou Kirtachi and Falmey. In 1976, half the Reserve Tamou was decommissioned by the public authorities to resettle the people of Zarmaganda severely affected by the drought of 1973. With the drought of 1984-1985, a major additional flow was recorded. The scarcity of resources due to demographic growth has led people to put pressure on protected resources of the Park through the illegal deforestation, illegal transhumance, poaching and bush fires. To reverse this trend, alternative solutions for participatory management combining sustainable conservation and economic development of local communities, are needed. It will contribute to ownership of the protected area by these populations in their diversity. Adjustments related to the different activities performed must be done. Pastoral and agricultural areas must be designed to enhance productivity. This is accompanied by the promotion of income generating activities (beekeeping, fishing and hunting zones creation) to diversify sources of income and the fight against poverty.
Present study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Amaranthus viridis ethanolic extracts, against two Gram positive bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and four Gram negative bacterial strains via; Proteus vulgaris, Peudomonas picketii, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. Disc diffusion method was used and also by calculating their MIC values. Antibacterial assay indicated that Amaranthus viridis had inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Peudomonas picketii. Agar tube dilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of Amaranthus viridis. Ethanolic extract was tested against five different strains of fungal species, including;Fusarium solani, Alternaria species, Aspergillus flavus green, Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus fumigatus. It was concluded that Amaranthus viridis had moderate antifungal activity (41-51%) against Alternaria species while low activity (below 40%) against Aspergillus flavus green, Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus fumigatus. The study revealed antibacterial and antifungal potential of etahnolic extract of Amaranthus viridis.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food security crop for poor rural communities, particularly in Africa. At household level, cassava landraces used for cultivation are mainly selected based on farmers' interests, leading to very particular diversity evolution over generations. The structure, composition and factors influencing cassava diversity at that level is not well monitored and under documented. This study aimed at capturing and analyzing local knowledge on cassava genetic diversity and the key parameters affecting it in Benin, for better and sustainable local cassava genetic resources management. The methodological approach was based on field visits, interview using questionnaire and group discussion with farmers. Data were collected from one hundred and ninety eight (198) respondents and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority (82%) of the respondents were male, generally 20 to 80 years old. Positive correlation was found between cassava diversity maintained per household with cultivated area and household size (R2 = 0.162). Farmers used mainly stem and leaves characteristics to identify cassava varieties. Plant materials for next season were mostly selected according to the disease (mainly plant free of viral infection) status, size of the stem and number of nodes. The study revealed existence of a high diversity of cassava at the household level. However, various factors constrained cassava production and threats on cassava diversity were observed. Establishment of community field genebank, introduction of new varieties were some of the on-farm conservation strategies proposed by cassava farmers.
Aloes are included to a non-timber forest product and they were a natural potential of Indonesian forest. In Maluku, aloes are more common founded in the Southeast Maluku district, Southwestern Maluku and Centreal Maluku. In Indonesia there were16 kinds of trees that can produce an aloes including 6 species grows in Maluku region, but they have not been commercially used by the society in the Maluku region. White Aloes (Aquilaria filarial) were the one of local Maluku that often found in the Manusela village Seram West part. Studying the association of white Aloes (Aquilaria filarial) plant ecology, it was very important to obtain the maximum results, especially in the land utilization system, the plant cultivation technique, as well as the type that suitable to plant jointly with the white Aloes (Aquilaria filarial) plant. Types that have the strongest association ability were the spouse of Aquilaria filarial and Ficus elastic. Aquilaria filarial and Cananga odorata. Types that have a weakest association ability with the Aquilaria filarial were Euchaliptus sp. Based on the analysis results of cluster, the type of which is considered capable to assosiate with the white Aloes (Aquilaria filarial) were: (a) Aquilaria filarial and Euchaliptus sp; (b) Aquilaria filarial and Ficus elastic; (c) Aquilaria filarial and Cananga odorata; (d) Aquilaria filarial and Cananga odorata; and (e) filarial Aquilaria and Miristica fatua.