The purpose of this research is to make comparison of different software development models as well as software maintenance process models for the sake of presenting an enhanced maintenance model. The comparison is made on the basis of different criteria, such as functionality, usability, reusability, performance and availability. Software is developed to help the user of the system so that he/she can work more effectively and efficiently. In software development following phases are considered i.e. requirement gathering phase, requirement analysis phase, design phase, coding, and testing. The maintenance in working software is applied on the basis of following criteria: editing in software module, adding new features, removing useless features, and for enhancing functionality of complete software, so that the software product can cope with current working demands of market. To overcome the problems occurs in current working software there is need to make maintenance procedure more effective and perfect. The current study has been based on enhancement of software maintenance process. “Enhancement in Task-Oriented Software Maintenance Model by Using Requirement and Design Ruse Repository” is proposed in this paper, which is based on “Enhancement in Task-Oriented Model”. Through which it would become easy to proceed maintenance procedure in a controlled, cost effective and in a time saving way. Different software houses have been studied for the sake of making enhancement in the software maintenance model. This proposed model has lot of benefits over previous maintenance model. Moreover this study increases the customer confidence over maintainer and also uses as helping hand for increasing developer’s confidence over customer or user.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the contamination of chicken meat sold in Rabat and Salé by Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). This pathogen was isolated from 300 samples of chicken meat collected in supermarkets and in traditional slaughterhouses during the period from June 2011 to December 2012. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes found from the 300 samples analyzed was 3.66% (n=11). Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the different sampling locations (p1 = 0.4424; 1 = p2 and p3 = 0.5598) in regards to contamination of the chicken meat by L. monocytogenes even if these sites have a big difference in respect of the good hygiene practices.
Given the complexity of the internal and external environment of business, the manager's role must pass from a payer structure to a wider structure to guide his teams to the resonance. The manager must have different management styles in his toolbox and emotionally intelligent to lead his team to a high emotional tone and successfully create the resonance.
The transmission line transfer capability and power system stability are greatly affected by the low frequency electromechanical oscillations. The conventional approach to damp these oscillations is by the use of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs). However, the capability of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers, such as Static Synchronous Series Compensators (SSSCs) and Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFCs), has been explored and proven. This paper investigates and compares the dynamic performance of conventional and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) based PSS and SSSC controllers applied in a two-area power system. The time domain simulation results, carried out in Matlab / Simulink platform, of the two-area power system subjected to different operating conditions, validate the efficiency of the proposed robust and simple approach with very good dynamic responses. The results demonstrate that the ANFIS based SSSC controllers show good damping performance characteristics in terms of both reduced amplitudes and settling times of oscillations compared to ANFIS based PSS controllers.
This present work consists of evaluating the extent to which organizational culture aspects are important in the perception of the success of the ERP system. A survey was conducted on 94 organizations operating in different business areas in Morocco. We have applied the PLS modeling to analyze the data collected. The results of this investigation show that culture oriented to employees emphasizing on involvement, collaboration, team working, mutual trust, decentralized decision making and power sharing explained the variance of perceived success of ERP system in term of system quality and net benefits. The results also show that the hierarchical culture which focuses on formalization was important in the perception of ERP success toward information quality and net benefits.
It appears increasingly clear that organizations which develop collaborative approaches managers - staff are those will go through the years of great socio-political economic turmoil of the late 20th century and early 21st century. Prevent conflicts and strikes are not enough for the smooth running of the organization's projects, in particular the quality approach project. This is to avoid the demobilization of personnel, considerable scourge manage to avoid failure of such change at the organizational level. HRM policy must be part of the time and only incidentally take individual decisions which have no significant impact on the long term. This article discusses different concepts and aspects of the mobilization of personnel required in the specific context of conducting a quality approach, approached as a change in the quality to lead.
The Draa Sfar mine is one of the important deposits in the western Meseta of Morocco (10Mt @ 5% Zn, 2% Pb, 0.33% Cu). This deposit is the Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide type (VMS). It’s located on the southern edge of the Hercynian Centrals Jebilets Massif. The mineralization is hosting in the Upper Visean-Namurian age and associated with rhyodacitic rocks.
To understand the spatial distribution of basic metals and the zoning of hydrothermal alteration, on the scale of the deposit, we used two 2D-3D modeling software; Vulcan and Surfer. The software Vulan showed us the flat shape of the mineralized megalens which is continuous and more or less distorted. In the northern part of the deposit, the mineralized lenses appeared superimposed level with the distinction of roof and wall formations. Vulcan also showed a southern block Zn-Pb-rich, a northing block Cu-Co (Au)-rich, and a center block which is the intermediate zone.
Moreover, the software Surfer established longitudinal and cross sections of the same values, the same power and the same cut off grade of the major elements. He has shown the high deep power areas in the southern block and characteristics of hydrothermal alteration zones.
The results of modeling obtained by Vulcan and Surfer are a contribution to the exploitation of the Draa Sfar mine while ensuring its development and sustainability of its activity. They could also constitute guides for the exploration of similar deposits in the Jebilets-Guemassa metallogenic province.
This paper deals another viewpoint of the variable structure control for the nonlinear systems. The implementation of the variable structure controller on a hydrographic system consisting four tanks shows the effectiveness of the method chosen for systems having a high nonlinearity. To reduce the reluctance effect on the control member is acted upon the switching gain, which depends on the upper limits of the uncertainties of the system. A comparison of variable structure controller with that proportional integral regulator is done to highlight importance of this control technique.
In this study we were interested in assessing the impact of ZnO nanoparticles and their effects on physiological and biochemical parameters of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum).
The impact of ZnO is evaluated in three wheat varieties (Boussallem, Gtadur and Ouarsenis) varieties are represented by V1, V3 V2et through a range of physiological and biochemical parameters made in the laboratory.
The selected varieties were exposed to increasing concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles (0.01 mg / ml, 0.05mg / ml, 0.1mg / ml, and 0.5mg / ml).
Preliminary results show that the presence of ZnO-based NPs can have a stimulating effect as inhibitor concentration and the effect studied parameter:
1. Effect concentration and a reduction of the levels of chlorophyll (chlo a, chlo b) induced by exposure to low concentrations.
2. The presence of the nanoparticles resulted in oxidative stress resulting in the accumulation of Lipoperoxydes (MDA) recorded in all varieties studied after exposure to different concentrations.
3. Furthermore varietal effect contributed much of the remaining variation in parameters related to ROS (carotenoids, APx and CAT).
This article that discusses the security of agricultural credit in the department of Borgou in Benin was interested in AgriFinance 100 customers who have at least once default. This investigation carried out using a questionnaire, seeking to know the reasons for their failures to propose appropriate measures for securing agricultural credit in Benin.
After investigation, it is noted that the factors of non-security may be endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous factors are related to the procedure for granting credit and exogenous factors from outside the structure. These factors are generally associated with products grown by the beneficiaries. Thus the prevailing risks in the agricultural sector in north Benin are economic risks, monitoring of climate risks, of bad faith in the repayment and natural hazards. To make operational agricultural credit and ensure the speaker followed by Micro Finance Institutions in the area, the state must provide its guarantee in financing agricultural activities. As for the Micro Finance Institutions, they must ensure the continuous monitoring of the beneficiaries to secure the farm income guarantee repayment of the credit.
During the decade of political and military crises of the 2000s in Ivory Coast, the classified forest of Haut-Sassandra (CFHS) located in the Central West has undergone many changes in its vegetation cover resulting in a significant change in its floristic composition and structure. The objective of this study is to determine after conflicts, the causative agents of these changes. To achieve this, a systematic sampling of damage types was done within the CFHS following 18 transects of 500 m each one. The agents responsible of these degradations were also identified. A total of 12 types of degradation have been identified of which four are most representative specifically slash and burn of stem base, association of food crops, falling trees and cocoa farms. The classification of geographic locations in decreasing degradation order revealed that the North and the East are the most altered by Human activities. With over 81.96% of presence on transects, cocoa farming is the main activity which causes the degradation of CFHS. With a percentage of 95%, Human is the mainly responsible of degradation observed in the CFHS. The crises arising conflicts have therefore promoted a significant human impact of CFHS. The lack of environmental monitoring during this period is one of the factors behind this strong anthropisation of CFHS.
The effects of cutting position and clonal variation were investigated on rooting of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam. at the nursery of Moist Forest Research Station, Benin City. Single – node leafy stem cuttings were made from six coppicing trees each constituting a genetic origin from both the apical and basal region of stems of harvested shoots. Cuttings were all treated with 0.2% concentration of Indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). The experiment was a 2x6 factorial and laid out in a completely randomised design in non – mist propagators, hermetically sealed with a temperature range of 240C- 330C. Decomposed sawdust was used as the propagation medium and 360 cuttings were used in the experiment. Variables taken were root length, root numbers and rooting percentage.
Clonal variation and cutting position had highly significant effect on root length (P < 0.05). Interaction (clone x cutting position) was also significant for root length development. Among the six clones investigated, C1 clone cuttings had the highest mean root length and from the apical region of the shoot. Neither of the tested factors had effect on root number and rooting percentage nor did the interaction between them (P > 0.05). The finding reveals that D. edulis is sensitive to both clonal variation and cutting position and amenable to vegetative propagation using leafy stem cuttings.
Bananas peel was used as an adsorbent to determine its feasibility for the removal of chromium (VI). Chromium heavy metal released into the environment has caused serious contamination of water and soils with significant environmental and occupational concerns. The removal of the Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions is investigated in this study using of banana peels as a low cost biosorbent material. Various parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial metal concentration and adsorbent dosage were investigated to determine the biosorption performance. Equilibrium was attained within 60 minutes and maximum removal of 96% was achieved under the optimum conditions at pH 2. The adsorption phenomenon demonstrated here was monolayer represented by Langmuir isotherm with R2 value of 0.99 and the Langmuir constants k and qm was found to be 1,53 (L/mg) and 10,09 (mg/g). The adsorption system obeyed Pseudo second order kinetics with R2 value of 0.999.
Family is a primary and basic unit of socialization and a child learn many behaviors, customs, traditions, faith, believes, norms, folkways, mores, habbits, social patterns and manners to live in family. When a family had a break up, it is usually hard for everyone that how to grip the situation and children cannot bear this situation. Broken family system is putting a dark impact on social development, academic performance and on psychological health of children. The basic objectives of the research were 1) to explore the socio-economic status of broken families, 2) to see the causes of separation of broken families, 3) to explore the pattern of relationship of children inside and out-side of the house, 4) to find out the behavior of elders and parents of broken families with children, 5) to see the effect of broken families on social development of children, 6) to find the academic performance of children before and after the breakup of families and 7) to explore the consequences of broken families on psychological condition of children.
The present research intends to answer the foundamental questions below :
- Do Schoolchildren of the Sixth form primary school of catholic schools succed better in mathematic than French to the TENAFEP
- What is the success referential level in the both basic branches according to schools and sex?
In view of what procedes, we formulate our main hypothesis as following :
- The school children of the sixth form primary school of catholic schools Goma city, would better succed or would be more effective in French than in mathematic.
In additional to this main hypothesis , we expressed both others, so that we can verify the variables kept in our work.
- There would not be difference of success in French and in mathematic between girls and boys
- There would be meaning full between the average off success in mathematic as well as in French on the other hands.
After making the analyze of collected data, the main hypothesis is corroborated.
A high effective is showed by school children in French than in mathematic. But their results in French and in mathematic don’t any meaning full difference according to the sex. The first sub hypothesis is invalidated by this result and the second in the (sub hypothesis) is varied. The average of school children of these schools are different in mathematic but they don’t present a meaning full difference in French.
In recent years, the effect of partial shading on the energy yield of photovoltaic array has been widely analysed. Partial shading conditions caused due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby objects on a photovoltaic array can have a significant effect on its energy yield. The power output of the photovoltaic array under partial shading depends on the PV array configuration, shading pattern and the physical location of shaded modules in the array. The amount of power generated by the photovoltaic array also changes continuously with the changes in weather conditions. Therefore it is very important to understand the characteristics of photovoltaic array under non uniform irradiation condition in order to achieve higher efficiency under all conditions. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of different configurations of photovoltaic array with H5 inverter under partial shading conditions. The simulation was done using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.
The purpose of this paper is to review the application of robot in Orthodontics. Application of robot in orthodontics is a novel application of robotic technology in medical field. This kind of robot can offer more precision, better results, and a beautiful smile in less time than conventional braces.
As the persued objective of our study is to evaluate the capacity of school children from the second form primary school of private school in Goma, practicing French teaching since the first (degree) primary degree, whether they are able to transcribe correcty common use, names of objects in French.
We formulated an hypothesis where schoolchildren of the second form who are early submitted to the teaching of French will show the capacity of transcribing correctly familiar names of objects to them in French.
48 schoolchildren of the 5 private schools of the Goma city constituted our occasional sample.
Our sample is drawing from 48 schoolchildren of 5 private schools of Goma city.
After the statistical analyses, we observed the results quoted below.
Globally, our investigated topics achieved an average of 12,51 and an output of 63%, what testifies that they succeeded in transcribing names of common use in French correctly.
This result confirms our hypothesis of which the schoolchildren of the second form will be able to write correctly in French, common use names of objects.
In this work, applications for the evaluation of power supply systems using artificial intelligence are presented. Wave distortion problems are presented when disturbance in the power quality exists. In some cases, the result is a temporal detention in the industrial processes, equipments and conductors aging, not forgetting to include the loss of wasted energy which also has costs to the user. The purpose of the application of artificial intelligence and computer vision is to use this tools for a better understanding and analysis of images or the features of an image, so as the signal acquisition and processing to determine the variables involved in the conductor’s aging through finite element computer modeling, registration of different images of the same scene or object for comparative studies or mathematical calculations applications of the Fourier transform, product of wave distortions produced by electronic components, to make mathematical modeling, it is necessary to obtain or acquire signals. This will allow us to evaluate energy systems reliably as a new field of research in electric power systems. Due to the complexity of the causes and problems associated with harmonics, there have been proposed a lot of mathematical models to better understand this issue and for which have yet to establish definitive models.
The study assessed the role of camels and donkeys in rural transport in Dundaye district of Wammako local government area of Sokoto State. Seventy five (75) respondents (animal transporters) were selected randomly from the study area, data were collected from primary and secondary sources, primary sources were through structured questionnaire, while secondary sources were from periodicals, documents, proceedings and journals. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results of the findings revealed that based on coat colour 4 distinct types of camels were identified 30% Ja (red) was more than any other colour and 7 different types of donkeys were identified with 36% Ehokusu (cream) more than others, on loads carried; 61.33% camels were used for moving crops stalk from one location to another, while 38.48% donkeys fetch water for their owners, 41.24% preferred camels because it could be sold after long time use to generate income, 32.48% camels can take them to places where they can board a vehicle, 58.67% camel and 50.67% donkeys transporters encountered disease infections and reluctance to move respectively. It is recommended that veterinary doctors should visit interior villages periodically to treat sick animals and animal transporters should form associations so as to attract assistance from government and non-governmental organizations.
This work assessed some bioindicators of soil quality along toposequences in Gobala (Poro Region of Cote d’Ivoire). Plant communities have been assessed in four steps (i) use plant inventories to document abundance of plants according to index by assigning a numeric score from +, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively corresponding to an average recovery of 0%, 5%, 17.5%, 37.5% 62.5% and 85% (ii) identification of the plant species of scale (iii) distribution of different groups by significantly stands by multivariate analysis (iv) research indicator species based on behavioral indicators depending and nutrient availability. Lower slopes were characterized by 3 perennial grasses plants (Aframomum alboviolaceum, Andropogon africanus, Hyparrhenia subplumosa) and 5 woody plants (Hymenocardia heudelotii, Pseudocedrela kotschii, Pterocarpus santalinoides, Vernonia ambigua and Xylopia parviflora). Lower slopes had highest S/T and lowest C/N values of selected soil quality indicators. At middle slopes, 3 perennial herbaceous plants: Pericopsis laxiflora, Chromolaena odorata and Hyptis suaveolens, were indicated highest C/N (8.8) values of selected poor soil quality. At the upper slopes, Terminalia glaucescens indicated sandy soils (77.4%) of selected poor soil quality. Five species: Daniellia oliveri, Andropogon canaliculatus, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Hyparrhenia Rufa and Lippia multiflora, were far from demanding, because they can be found on various types of pedons and in different ecosystems. Further studies should help to refine the various stages of this methodology, including research indicator taxa by IndVal index.
A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of Curater 10 G (10% Carbofuran) on the parasitic nematodes associated with 5 cowpea varieties. Each variety was planted into two adjacent plots, one of which was treated with 400g a.i/ha of Curater 10 G and the other left untreated.
Nematodes population densities in the field were assessed prior to nematicide application and planting, at mid-season and at crop maturity. At maturity, plants were harvested from both treated and untreated plots and the yields recorded. Yield loss and the percentage yield reduction were calculated.
Initial population of the plant-parasitic nematodes was quite low. Although the population densities of these nematodes increased in the treated as well as untreated plots, the final population densities were higher in untreated than in treated plots.
The yield gains were significant in four of the five varieties (IT 227-2 K- 90 , KD 89 IT -391 , IT 88 DM-345 and the local Foumbot). But in general, the yield increases on IITA varieties were not significantly different from that obtained on the local Foumbot. For these varieties yield grains ranged from about 28 to 68%. This shows the sensitivity of these cowpea varieties to parasitic nematodes and the bioefficacy of carbofuran.
The layers lithology traversed by Abouabou drilling was studied using successively 32 samples to a depth of about 240 m.
The log established indicates a high level of clay about 63 m, the bottom to the surface. This level is followed by alternating average levels (about 26 m) of sandy clays and sands rich in limestone, with a thickness of 72 m.
This assembly is surmounted by average to low levels sandy (40 to 09 m), with calcareous intercalation to the surface. These sands alternate with clay banks of 16 to 10 m. the grain size analyses show essentially coarse to very coarse sands. They have generally bad standings with a strong asymmetry to the fines. Although their characteristics argue for a reduction in their water holding capacity, these sandy levels are still favorable hydrogeological tanks.
A study on geological, pedological and botanical prospection was undertaken. The main focus was to identify the types of relief, soils and flora which characterize a suitable soil landscape for the growth of Imperata cylindrica. Investigations were conducted in two locations in Cote d'Ivoire (Ahoue and Yaokoffikro), in order to observe the soil landscape and the state of the plant stand. Data was collected from at Ahoue (southern Côte d'Ivoire) and Yaokoffikro (Centre Côte d'Ivoire). The results obtained from this first investigation indicate that Imperata cylindrica needs a fallow type environmental ecosystem with sandy soils from sedimentary (Abidjan) and silico-aluminous (Bouake) rocks. Imperata cylindrica preferably developed in middle and foot slope positions. Therefore, there is a need for more investigations focusing on the influence of soil texture and nutrients contents on Imperata cylindrica occurrence in both ecosystems.
With the amelioration of the promising research work in the sphere of mobile communication and cloud computing, the swift and seamless data transmission stands on congestion control of the network. However, many a routing method involves to easing the congestion in the mobile network. Mostly, the prime focus of any routing algorithm remains towards the approach to the selection of the route in which path data packets are being sent efficiently. But the short fall of this concept is it cannot deal with the congestion prevention and congestion avoidance scenario. Our optimized routing approach with the help of artificial neural network will ensure relatively more smooth data transmission between any mobile device and cloud nodes across the global network by reducing the chance of arising congestion situation.