Within the Algerian context the urban historical centers are mainly composed by the old city of Ottoman era and the European city of the French era. These urban centers have experienced and continue to experience significant changes in their units, homogeneity and urban image. This phenomenon is accentuated with the natural growth of cities and the rural exodus. Therefore, urban development has complied with the economic imperatives alone, ignoring any historical urban structure reflecting the richness of different civilizations and cultures in the country. During the French period (1830 - 1962), the city was mainly inhabited by the Algerian population concentrated in the neighborhoods of the traditional city "Medina", and a European population concentrated in the colonial-type of houses. The city of Constantine which is considered the capital of eastern part of Algeria, by its size, its history and geographical position has seen many changes related to its structure and urban image. Also the city continues to undergo major transformations disregarding the context of historical urban city. Several scientific studies and research have allowed us to express the magnitude and importance of evaluation studies in the field of preservation of architectural heritage. Therefore, it is urgent to undertake scientific search in order to highlight the interest of this historical memory.
The paper examines the concept of sex counselling and its significance in the contemporary society. It also dissects the misconceptions upheld by adolescents and their implications on their moral development. The paper further addresses the reasons why adolescents engage in non-marital sex and its consequences. The counselling methods and approaches for tackling this are discussed. The paper concludes by giving the implications of the approaches on the moral development of adolescents.
An air pollution monitoring application system for analyzing and forecasting air pollutant data was developed in order to provide information about the quality of air we breathe. Two industrial environments were used as case studies namely Ife steel plant and Ibadan Asphalt Company. The application was developed using Microsoft visual studio 2012 for the client side and user interface while MYSQL was used for the database. System flowchart was used to design the application modules. Relevant data were collated from the data acquisition systems in Ile-Ife and Ibadan to develop the application. The application when implemented will enable users living and working in the area of study to know the extent at which the air is polluted, forecast the air data and store the collated data in a relational database which will be updated periodically for analysis. This study will attempt to help individuals to know the quality of air they breathe in any particular environment.
This study was aimed to estimate physico-chemical characteristic of Harsi reservoir. Harsi reservoir located in Dabra, Gwalior district, Madhya Pradesh is constructed on parwati River. Monthly study in physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, depth, transparency, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chlorides, sulphates, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicates, ammonia, BOD, COD, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium were analyzed from January 2011 to December 2011. The results indicated that physico-chemical parameters of the water were used for drinking, domestic use, irrigation and pisciculture.
My work introduces a hidden topic-based framework for processing short and sparse documents (e.g., search result snippets, product descriptions, book/movie summaries, and advertising messages) on the Web. The framework focuses on solving two main challenges posed by these kinds of documents: 1) data sparseness and 2) synonyms/homonyms. The former leads to the lack of shared words and contexts among documents while the latter are big linguistic obstacles in natural language processing (NLP) and information retrieval (IR). The underlying idea of the framework is that common hidden topics discovered from large external data sets (universal data sets), when included, can make short documents less sparse and more topic-oriented. Furthermore, hidden topics from universal data sets help handle unseen data better. The proposed framework can also be applied for different natural languages and data domains. We carefully evaluated the framework by carrying out two experiments for two important online applications (Web search result classification and matching/ranking for contextual advertising) with large-scale universal data sets and we achieved significant results.
Cloud Computing provides a good model for the providers to deploy the computing infrastructure and applications on-demand. It offers greater flexibility to users by connecting to various computing resources and allowing access to IT enabled services. But it has the risk of privacy of user data and security. Thus security among the users of cloud is the most important concern. One of the security issue in cloud computing is data mining based attacks, which involves that the data can be analyzed continuously by an unanonymous person to get the valuable information. Using the single cloud provider this is a major problem among the clients in the cloud, because the outside attacker can analyze their data for a long time to gain the sensitive information. In this paper, we have given the data mining based attacks on cloud data and a method to prevent the attacks. In this paper, review of various data mining techniques is presented which can help achieve security of information on cloud. In today's fastest growing IT industry Cloud Computing is gaining much more popularity because the Cloud providers feel that it is very easy to manage the data in the cloud environment rather than normal web-sites in form of simple web pages. Every day the data seeking is being done by many users immensely. Here due to immense number of users seeking the data on daily basis there is a serious security concerns to the cloud providers as well as the data providers who put their data on the cloud computing environment. This paper provides solution of the security issues of cloud computing.
This paper presents a comparative study of speed control of a separately excited DC motor by using different type of controllers. .Conventional controllers are commonly being used to control the speed of the DC motors in various industrial applications. It's found to be simple, robust and highly effective when the load disturbance is small. But during high load or rapid variation of load, the fuzzy technique based controllers proves to be fast and reliable. Using chopper input voltage can be varied and thus speed can be varied. For better performance of the DC motor various kind of controller namely P-I, I-P, Fuzzy logic controller are used. Proportional-Integral type controller is used to eliminate the delay and provides fast control. However, the P-I controller has some disadvantages such as: sluggish response to a sudden load change, the high starting overshoots and sensitivity to controller gains. So, the relatively new Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of the P-I controller .After obtaining the model of separately excited DC motor, it is simulated using MATLAB (Simulink) environment. Then fuzzy logic controller has been designed and performance has been observed. Finally a comparative study is done between all the controllers.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in pediatric units are redoubted because of their high level of morbidity and mortality and the increased risk of therapeutic failure. Our aim was to access the profile of antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa isolats and guide the choice of an adapted antibiotic therapy against P. aeruginosa pediatric infections. A descriptive study has been conducted over a period of 4 years at the Mother - Child department of the University Hospital of Marrakech (Morocco). 168 stains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. P. aeruginosa infections were frequently occurred on an immunosuppression context. Specimens were dominated by pus (29.7%). P. aeruginosa bacteremia represented 20.8%. Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa stains (MDR) has represented 25.6% of all isolates. The highest rate of multidrug resistance has concerned pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (66.1%). The most active antibiotics were amikacin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. The cephalosporinase phenotype conferring resistance to ceftazidime was involved in 15 % of the strains. The imipenemase phenotype conferring resistance to all beta-lactams has concerned 4.7% of isolates. The antibiotic combinations piperacillin/tazobactam-amikacin has been chosen as an empirical antibiotic therapy against invasive P. aeruginosa infections in pediatric units. This study showed a high frequency of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa in pediatric intensive care units. Monitoring of local epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa is fundamental to guide the clinicians to choose an appropriate antibiotic therapy.
The paper examined the impact of human capital on economic growth in Nigeria, with the aim of providing additional evidence on the relationship between human capital and economic growth. A health adjusted education indicator is used as proxy for human capital which was calculated by taking enrolment rate at primary level and then multiplied the value with expenditure on health as percentage of GDP. The study employed Nigeria annual data, from 1980 to 2011 and Generalised Method of Moment(GMM) techniques in the analysis. Sargan test of over-identifying restrictions was conducted to verify the results obtained from Generalised Method of Moment and the Sargan test showed that the results obtain is valid and reliable. The estimated results provide evidence of positive relationship between human capital and economics growth in Nigeria. The health adjusted education indicator used was found to be highly determined economic growth in Nigeria. The study concluded that special attention should be given to health and education sectors simultaneously in Nigeria, such as increased budgetary allocation to the two sectors and to ensure proper implementation of programs in these two sectors in other to increase returns from these two sectors.
The paper examined the relationship between term structure of interest rate and economic activity and also investigated the relationship between term structure of interest rate and inflation rate in Nigeria. This was with a view of providing additional evidence on the predictive power of term structure of interest rate in Nigeria. The study employed quarterly time series data, from 1986-2008. The period was chosen based on the availability of one of the data used(14 years government bond). The study employed Dynamic Ordinary Lest Square(DOLS) techniques in the analysis. The diagnostics test conducted showed that the results obtain is valid and reliable. The estimated result shows that term structure of interest rate being the difference between interest rates of different maturities had positive and long run relationship with economic activity and inflation rate in Nigeria. The study concluded that the positive and significant of term structure of interest rate indicated that, term structure of interest rate in Nigeria does contain information about future inflation rate and economic activities. The study suggested that monetary authority should be consistent in interest rate policy formulation and Government should also bolster its activity in the Government securities market, as all these will improve the predictive ability of term structure of interest rate about future activities in Nigeria.
Thaumatococcus daniellii (Miraculous berry) belonging to the family maranthaceae is one of the sweeteners found in the tropical forest. However in Nigeria, because of the excessive use of this species as wrapping leaf, very little is known about its fruit as a source of sweetener. Although the leaves are sold in the market as wrapping leaf for bean budding (moi-moi) and other cooked foods such as rice. Information on the propagation of this species and utilization of its parts is very scanty making the species one of the threatened forest species. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine; the nutritional properties of the gelatinous layer of the fruit and the effects of various harvesting methods on the plant growth. The gelatinous layer of the fruits of Thaumatococcus daniellii is a sweetener known as "Thaumatin". Thaumatin is a sweet-tasting, flavor – enhancing protein. Some of the proteins in the thaumatin family are natural sweeteners roughly 2000 times more potent. The morphological characteristics of the stands of this species were measured using standard methods. The nutritional and the phytochemical composition of the gelatinous layer extracts of the fruits were analyzed in the laboratory using standard methods, while two harvesting methods were used to determine the effect of harvesting on the plant growth. The mean values of the morphological characteristics of stands of Thaumatococcus daniellii were as follows; stem height (154.9cm), stem girth (2.26cm), petiole length (24.86cm), petiole girth (1.69cm), leaf area (1018.93cm2). The phytochemical analysis of the gelatinous layer extracts of the fruit showed that it contains saponin (0.19%), flavonoids (0.41%), phenol (0.06%), HCN (0.81%), Tannin (0.16%), Alkaloid (0.11%), Phytate (0.05%). The nutritional analysis of the gelatinous layer extract of the fruits showed that it contains calcium (6.68mg/100g), magnesium (0.60mg/100g), Ash (5.80%), Fibre (0.41%), Protein (19.01), Nitrogen (3.04%). The result obtained showed that the species are highly nutririous and the sugar content of its fruit can be easily substituted for white sugar and also used in pharmaceutical industries for children syrups. The best harvesting method is the ground level harvesting method. Conservation of this species and should be promoted.
Renewable energy technology (RET) is gaining too much popularity now a day as these are considered as best replacement for fossil fuel based energy. Specially wind and solar energy gained much attention in developed as well as in developing countries. But one should also consider that these sources are not continuous, solar radiation is available at most 10 hours a day and wind also depends on particular geographical location. Due to their variable nature operator need to store energy from these sources so that power demand can be met during peak hours. But now during power oversupply, operators curtail these resources. The curtailment rates are expected to increase in future as RET shares increasing continuously. Instead of curtailment one can store the energy but it is seen that storage is not as favourable as curtailment. So we suggest that instead of curtailment and storage in conventional electro-chemical battery system one should go for electricity storage in form of hydrogen. For this electrolysis is the best way. In this paper we will review the hydrogen production by electrolysis and its use in RET.
Many industrial emissions and the exhaust of vehicles contain heavy metals . Cadmium, (Cd) is one of these heavy metals and is emitted in the gas and dust remnants of some factories like copper smelters. Cadmium has a half-life of greater than ten years in human and thus accumulates in the body over the time. It is a potentially neurotoxic pollutant and approximately 50% of the body burden of cadmium can be found in the kidney. Cadmium produces proximal tubule dysfunction and tissue injury. This injury may progress to a chronic interstitial nephritis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Arabic gum on renal disorder induced by cadmium on male rats. The results obtained showed that daily intrapreitoneal injection of 2 mg cadmium chloride (CdCl2) / Kg b. wt / day for ten weeks induced renal toxicity in rats. Serum urea, creatinine, sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and total calcium (Ca) were evaluated one and two weeks post- cadmium induction. Significant ameliorations were noted in these parameters after daily treatment with a dose 0.5 g/kg of Arabic gum during the experimental period.
This paper focuses on the modeling of financial resources of private social security organism, namely the determination of models or process able to reproduce the evolution of this component. From the optimal model chosen, monthly forecasts are established. Financial resources modeling and forecasts resulting are obtained by application of the univariate analysis of Box-Jenkins method, which is the most suitable for the study of time series like the series of monthly financial resources of social security scheme administered by the institution. This approach is to determine the model that allows more faithfully the reproduction of the evolution of the financial resources of the institution and forecasting on a determined horizon.
The objective of this paper is to estimate a model of simultaneous equations on macroeconomic data from 1980 to 2011. In fact economic phenomena of any complexity are described by a set of variables and their modeling requires in general more of a mathematical relationship, or equation, connecting these quantities, referred to as simultaneous equations models. There are endogenous variables, which are determined by the model, and the exogenous variables determined or fixed outside of it.
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) functions important role in receiver designs. In, microwave receiver LNA circuit plays important role in quality factor of receiver. At radio frequency range, trade-off characteristics like gain, noise figure, stability, power consumption and complexity forces designer for various circuit's simulation for optimizing those. An LNA design presents a considerable challenge because of its simultaneous requirement for high gain, low noise figure, good input and output matching and unconditional stability at the lowest possible current draw from the amplifier. For short range and high data rate wireless applications UWB technology offers a promising solution to the radio frequency. As LNA is most important block included in the UWB front-end RF receiver, we focused this paper on review of LNA design using CMOS technique.
The objective of this paper is to examine empirically the pass-through of the exchange rate changes on the domestic prices. In order to take into account of bi-directional effects, as well as other macroeconomic factors, between domestic inflation and exchange rate changes, a vector autoregression (VAR) analysis is used, with four variables that are: the oil BRENT price, nominal effective exchange rate, consumer price index and the output gap. Empirical findings shows that innovations on the exchange rate cause a similar response on the consumer price index (CPI), also the consumer price index is influenced by the price of the BRENT barrel.
The principal component analysis, introduced by Hotelling in 1933, is a descriptive method which is aimed at the analysis of the data tables which does not have a particular structure, in other words, comments at first glance with no distinction between variables, or between individuals. The PCA aims to summarize information contained in an array consisting of large number of rows and columns, a few graphs in two dimensions, and more a number of digital features. We will use this method to analyze a sample of logistics service providers in the region of the great Casablanca in Morocco.
The Most of Hospitals are making a surgical treatments having a lot of medical waste it contains large volumes of water in their surgical operations .But during this process the water gets contaminated. This implies the need for waste water treatment before discharge. Waste treatment refers to the activities required to ensure that waste has the least practicable impact on the environment. Improvement in determining the effects of medical waste discharges have led to the passage of stringent environmental laws, which defined the degree of treatment necessary to protect water quality. In this present study enhanced the reactor designed and different parameter. The anaerobic treatment is considered one of the most efficient methods for treating several types of effluents. This is due to its scope for treating high rate of simply biodegradable matters and wastewater. The up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology was considered as the most popular method in which the highest rate of organic materials can be removed. Nonetheless, the long start up interval of UASB reactor requires more understanding of the biological process inside the reactor. During this study, which lasted for 50 days, two distinct phases were carried out according to the ambient temperature. The temperature of the waste water entering the reactor was naturally ranged from 260c to 30o c and no heat exchanger was used. From this experimental work enhanced for treatment efficiency of effluent by varying the different parameters like hydraulic retention time and various organic loading rates. On the basis of the results in optimal hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate BOD, COD and TSS was removed respectively.
Introduction: Quinolones have a powerful antimicrobial activity and are frequently prescribed in general medicine. This study aims to evaluate the emergence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance «PMQR» genes among enterobacterial isolates from Morocco. Material and methods: 237 enterobacterial strains were isolated from community setting. Resistance to antibiotics and the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) were conducted according to the recommendations of the French Society of Microbiology; PMQR, ESBL (TEM, SHV and CTX- M) and AmpC genes were screened by PCR. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was identified by PCR-RFLP. All PCR products were sequenced. Conjugation experiments were done using the sodium azide-resistant strain E. coli K12J5. Results: 26.3% of the strains are resistant to at least 5 antibiotics; 7 strains (3%) show an ESBL phenotype. The prevalence of «PMQR» genes is 11.10%: the qnr gene was found in 6 isolates with a rate of 1.7% for qnrS1 and 0.9% for qnrB (B5, B6). The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected in 8.5% of the strains. The qnrA and qepA genes were not found. Conjugation experiments showed that the genes qnrS1, aac(6')-Ib-cr and CTX-M-15 have been co-transfered together and that these genes are carried on conjugative plasmids of high molecular weight. Conclusion: This study confirms the dissemination of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr in Moroccan community setting. However, the high level of antibiotic resistance concerns a high risk of transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria and challenges the authorities for surveillance of resistance policy.
This article presents the results of the development of an enterprise resources management referential. This referential is an inspiration to the principles of the system of quality management mainly process approach, leadership, employee involvement and the continuous improvement loop (Plan, Do, Cheek and Act). We considered four types of resources, human resources, material resources, information system and enterprise providers. This may be considered as a practical guide for the implementation of the process of resource management of the company, as audit questionnaire and guidelines for improving the process.
This paper reviews Governance Policy on Housing, by evaluating the reform agenda of successive government from colonial administration to President Goodluck Jonathan's New Housing Policy. What are the achievements and failures in the pursuit of affordable housing? Drawings lessons from experiences in housing in the UK, China, South Africa and other developed economies, the paper affirm that preceding housing policies of Government were largely unsuccessful due to observed order of nepotism, corruption, poor political will in implementation strategies, lack of transparency and due process. The concept of social housing in Nigeria is acclaimed, but can it be the much awaited answer to Nigeria's housing problem? The paper affirms in strong terms that success is a possibility if necessary factors required for its achievement are in place and strengthened. Paper in conclusion, suggests measures for achieving affordable housing in Nigeria.
The paper studies Informal settlements in Abuja, from the analytical framework of poverty and homelessness. The environmental, socio-economic and cultural feature associated with population growth, is, highlighted to underscore the severity of issues. Drawings lessons from experiences of squatter settlement in Brazil, India, South Africa and other developed economies; paper underscores Government policies and interventions in upgrading 'slums' and 'squatters' settlements. The paper in conclusion suggests needs to improve and upgrade the general quality of the physical conditions of the environment of urban slums and squatters' settlements in the developed edges (Karu, Durumi, Nyanya, and Maraba) of Abuja, Nigeria.
The CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized by a simple and low cost chemical route. The optical properties of the prepared samples are characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, quantum yields (QYs) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The studies show that CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals sizes at the first excitonic absorption peak increase with increasing time and temperatures. The spectroscopic study of the prepared CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles shows that the crystal size of the nanoparticles are in the range of 4.47-5.41nm. TEM results reveal that CdSe nanoparticles are well-ordered crystallized with average particle sizes 4.5-5.5 nm. Fluorescence analysis of the synthesized CdSe/ZnS NCs samples reveals that CdSe/ZnS NCs of the crystal size range 5.25-5.74 nm exhibit luminescence output peak around 550-570 nm. The homogenous formation of CdSe/ZnS NCs core-shell are confirmed by the maintained full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of fluorescence emission spectra for the samples prepared under different time. At the room temperature fluorescence QYs of CdSe/ZnS NCs are 27%-45%.
The indentation hardness of Al-SiCp metal-matrix composites synthesized by stir casting process was investigated. Stir casting method was selected as the casting method due to its simplicity, flexibility and applicability. This method allows a conventional metal processing route to be used which minimizes the cost of the product. The silicon carbide particles to be used were first ball milled for size reduction. These particles were then sieved in a mechanical shaker to obtain different particle sizes. SiC particles of size 74µm corresponding to mesh 200 were selected for addition to the Al matrix. The composite was prepared by adding preheated SiC particles to the Aluminium melt via stir casting. Test specimens were prepared by varying the wt% of SiC (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%). As the SiCp additions were increased, the hardness of the composite increased to a large extent. This can be attributed to the uniform distribution of the SiC particles in the Al matrix via stir casting method.
Cloud computing is an up-and-coming technology and shared information, resources, software and hosting to customer on a pay-as-you-use basis. The major issues in cloud computing is the data protection security and it reduce the growth of the cloud computing. The security needs during the transmission of sensitive data and critical application to shared cloud environment. For secure communication over public network data can be protected by the method of encryption. So the proposed encryption techniques for secure data transmission, SSL over RSA with magic square provide add-on security to cryptosystem. To provide the confidentiality and integrity of data-in-transmission to and from cloud providers In this paper cryptographic methods RSA are discussed and combine Magic Square algorithm with RSA when implementing on data security in cloud computing.
In this paper we describe the design of a phase interleaving buck boost converter and simulation of the same by using PSIM software. The important specification of IC UCC28063, which is used for controlling and regulating of buck boost converter is also discussed. The input range is (170-270) VAC and the output voltage is controlled to 216 VDC. This AC-DC buck boost converter operated at high frequency i.e. 25KHZ and maintains the power factor approximately unity. PSIM proved the feasibility of the design and we also used this PFC converter in a 5kva Online UPS system.
In the new millennium, scholars and business personal are actively searching a secret recipe on how to support the ability of current generations to meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. As many research discovered that eco innovation echoes to the sustainability development, research opportunity knocked the door for knowledge discovery as limited information reveals under this domain. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to shed light on the role of eco innovation efforts towards sustainable development particularly in the automotive industries. There are five types of eco innovation that highly discussed in the literature namely eco product, process, marketing, organization and institutional. However, the technical eco innovation in forms of product and process relatively embrace by automotive industries as this industry received global forces in order to reduce pollution and waste creation. Furthermore, many scholars acknowledge that the automotive industries behave as a driver to improve sustainability performance. Secondly, this paper will discuss the secret weapons behind the eco innovation efforts underlines product and process innovation by reviewing dynamic capabilities theory. Last but not least, at the end of this paper, new paradigm for new research opportunities in automotive industries will be discussed.
The objective of this study is to better understand the functioning of a river system in the context of sustainable management of water resources. To better understand this functioning, hydrogeological modelling of the watershed of White Bandama is necessary. The methodological approach is derived from a process comprising two steps. The results are derived from a process comprising two steps. The first step consists in the mapping of the physical descriptors of the watershed that affect hydrological processes, such as topography, drainage patterns, land cover and soil type. Using PHYSITEL and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope and orientation maps of the facets are derived and then coupled to the water system for the characterization of the internal hydrographic structure of the watershed. Supervised classification of Landsat TM dating from 1987 to 1993 led to the mapping of land use. The second step consists in combination of established thematic maps. The combination of these thematic maps is used to determine with HYDROTEL the dominant type of soil and land use by Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHU) representing small sub-watersheds.
It has been widely recognized that dye removal by activated carbon adsorption is due to the surface action between the dye and the functional groups present in the surface of the carbon. This work presents a systematic experimental study on kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of phenol red (PR) on teff (Eragrostis) husk activated carbon (THAC) and husk powder (HP). The adsorbents were characterized by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric techniques to understand the effect of surface properties on the adsorption of phenol red. The adsorption process was optimized with respect to pH, adsorbate initial concentrations, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Based on the results obtained, it was shown that teff husk activated carbon was more effective adsorbent than teff husk powder. The maximum adsorption of PR dye on THAC and HP occurred at pH of 5.2 and 5.0, respectively. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Lagergren rate constant and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant were also determined. The calculated values of the amount of dye adsorbed per gram of adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) using pseudo second order equation were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. The observed negative value of Gibbs free energy of adsorption (∆Gads) indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and the positive enthalpy of adsorption (∆Hads) as well as entropy of adsorption (∆S) show that entropy gain is the driving force rather than the energy change for the adsorption of phenol red on the THAC and HP.
This paper aims to assess the degradation of vegetation in the transition zone between the sedimentary and crystalline in central Benin. The method used is the geomatics and includes the photo - interpretation assisted image classification, the calculation of vegetation indices and spatial analysis. The results show that despite its high coverage (75.21%), unevenly distributed among the dense forest (40, 50%), open forest (15.03%), woodland (16.47%) and tree and shrub savannah (28.00%), large bare surfaces indicate a risk of desertification and loss of vegetation. Image processing from vegetation indices showed that the degraded vegetation is characterized by low coverage containing low biomass and having a healthy and low density. The highest rate of degradation of vegetation varies. The sharp deterioration represents 8.89% of the dense forest, 76.83% of the woodland, 72.89% of woodland and 100% of the tree and shrub savannah. Degradation of vegetation is related to the importance of human pressure in the south and center of the study area, the sedimentary basin, and insufficient water in the North, on the crystalline basement.
The study was carried out with an objective to evaluate the agronomic performance of 76 rice genotypes and to learn the variability, heritability and genetic advance of yield and its components. The genotypes differed significantly for all the characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days of maturity, number of tillers plant-1, number of effective tillers plant-1, plant height, panicle length, number of filled grain panicle-1, number of unfilled grain panicle-1, 1000-seed weight and yield plant-1. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) were higher than genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters studied indicating that they all interacted with the environment to some extent. All the characters studied in the present investigation expressed high heritability estimates ranging from 78.38 to 99.14 percent. High heritability values indicate that the characters under study are less influenced by environment in their expression. High heritability along with high genetic advance was noticed for the traits, number of filled grains panicle-1 and number of unfilled grains panicle-1. Other characters showed high heritability along with moderate or low genetic advance which can be improved by intermating superior genotypes of segregating population developed from combination breeding.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationships among product quality & delivery services, commitment and e-loyalty in the context of e-tailing. The stated variables have considerable importance on firm's performance. The data were collected from a sample of 383 students at universities in China during the first quarter of 2014. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to investigate the hypotheses about relationship among model constructs. The study hypotheses developed were positively confirmed. The study reveals implications in product quality & delivery services, commitment and e-loyalty that are helpful to both academics and practitioners.
Nigeria is an amalgam of rival ethnic groups pitched against each other in a contest for power and resources that have reflected in the political processes, sometimes threatening the corporate existence of the country. Right from the constitutional conferences organized during the colonial era down to the ones organized after independence, the question of an acceptable system of co-existence has been contentious. However, the intervention of the military in the political affairs of the country and their long duration in governance succeeded in abating the full manifestation of ethno-nationalism. But the return of the country to democracy in 1999 has enabled the suppressed ethno-nationalism grievances to explode, throwing up issues beyond the capacities of democratic institutions. Ethno-nationalism has become a threat to the survival of the nation's nascent democracy and its existence. As a result, the democratic government has resorted to the tactics of military administration in the management of these challenges. This paper examines the state's response to an emboldened ethno-nationalism and its implications on the process of democratization. It adopted both descriptive and analytical methods, using the theory of instrumentalism to explain the factors responsible for ethno-nationalism.
Morinda lucida Benth have been used over the years by rural communities across the tropical region for its medicinal potentials. Phytochemicals are bioactive plant constituents produced via secondary metabolism in relatively small amounts. Their presence span across several plant species of which Morida lucida is worthy of note. To ascertain the phytochemical constituents responsible for the ethno-medical properties of Morinda, a qualitative and quantitative screening of the phytochemical constituents was conducted on some sampled leaves. The result of the screening showed that the leaf of Morinda contains alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. The implication of these finding is that the presence of anthraquinone in Morinda leaves makes it a potential laxative; while the presence of steroid, alkaloid and tannins explains its ability to treat heart ailments, malaria and diarrhea respectively among other ailments.
Mobile Adhoc Networks is one of the complex systems and it is used in many applications and management operations. Due to the difficulties in MANET, it is essential to check the respective node and their security for each, because each node is affected by various attacks and it produces the threats in the network. These threats create more than one identity and it takes the other node's information. The main objective of the proposed work is to detect and eliminate the serious attacks such as Sybil and Masquerade simultaneously.
Morphometric analysis helps to understand the fluvial and structural control of the terrain and the geological and geomorphic aspects of a drainage basin. It is inevitable in developmental and management plan of a watershed. A critical evaluation and assessment of morphometric parameters of Vagamon and Peermade sub-watersheds have been achieved through measurement of linear, aerial and relief aspects of sub-watersheds by using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques. Detailed drainage map is prepared for both the sub-watersheds using ArcGIS 9.2. The analysis reveals that Vagamon a typical high land sub-watershed of Meenachil river basin is characterized by trellis pattern. Stream order varies from 1 to 3 with total number of stream segments as 43, out of which the 83.72% is by 1st order streams with a minimum 2.33% as 3rd order whereas Peermade sub-watershed, which forms a part of Pamba river basin is characterized by the dominance of dendritic pattern. However the eastern region shows trellis pattern. Out of the 100 stream segments identified, 79.00% (79) is 1st order with only 1.00% i.e., one number is 4th order stream. Vagamon sub-watershed shows typically trellis drainage pattern and structural complexity. Morphometric analysis results reveals that Vagamon sub-watershed has high values of Ruggedness Number (Rn), Length of Overland Flow (Lof), Bifurcation Ratio (Rb) and Constant Channel Maintenance (C) and low values of Elongation Ratio (Re), Circularity Ratio(Rc), and Form Factor (Rf). This indicates the highly elongated shape and the structural complexity which further emphasized by the typical trellis pattern of the of Vagamon sub-watershed. High basin relief and relief ratio of the Vagamon sub-watershed compared to that of Peermade sub-watershed is an expression of the more steep nature of the slopes compared to Peermade, as is evident from field verification. High drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs) and texture ratio (T) of Peermade sub-watershed reveals its low infiltration capacity and impermeable subsurface material.
Malaria contributes to 11% of maternal deaths in Nigeria (McGregor, 1984). These women are infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent Plasmodium with serious health consequences. This study therefore was designed to assess the perception and practice of Intermittent Prevention Treatment of malaria among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in Ibadan North East Local Government Area. The study was a cross sectional surveys in which 99 respondents were interviewed. Data on demography, perception, practice, knowledge and barriers to the use of IPT were collected and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty three (33.3%) of the respondent are between the ages of 31-35 years, while 25(25.3%) are within the age range of 26-30 years. Perception of pregnant women receiving IPT for malaria shows that IPT is very effective 32 (32.3%), while 60(60.6%) agrees that IPT drugs are readily available for pregnant women. Also, the study shows that71 (71.7%) had benefited from the program of IPT before, and 39 (39.4%) often attends seminars on malaria. On knowledge of pregnant women on IPT for malaria, 56(56.6%) reveals reliability of IPT materials, 61(61.6%) agreed that SP-drugs has no side effect on them, and 58(58.6%) said low birth weight, still birth are effects of malaria in pregnancy. Moreover, the barriers to the use of IPT for malaria among pregnant women include inadequate information about its use 30(30.6%), inadequate storage facility 43(43.4%), abuse of SP-drugs 51(51.5%), and, hoarding of IPT materials by medical staff 25(25.3%). The study therefore recommends that government should ensure that IPT program for malaria is properly monitored and adequate supplies should be made.
Aims: Pollution of the environment with toxic heavy metals is spreading throughout the world with industrial progress. Metal pollution in industrial areas is of serious environmental concern as these metals like chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and cupper (Cu) are known to cause damage to living organisms including human beings. The study investigated the level of heavy metals and antibiotics resistance in bacteria isolated from rhizosphere soils contaminated with tannery effluents. Methodology and Results: Soil samples were collected from three selected rhizosphere soils of the Tannery effluent contaminated environments and heavy metals resistant rhizobacteria were isolated from soil. A total of twenty one rhizobacteria were isolated from Potassium dichromate supplemented nutrient agar. These isolates were categorized under Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Klebsiella species, Bacillus species, Listeria species, and Streptococcus species after biochemical tests. Further, these isolates were assessed for resistance to other heavy metals and antibiotic resistance. Most of these isolate exhibiting maximum resistance against both metals and antibiotics. Conclusion, Significance and Impact of study: These heavy metal resistant bacteria can be useful for the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated environment including industrial effluents.
This paper is intended to develop the Decision Support System of Myanmar Literature shown by Myanmar Stone Inscriptions using Image segmentation and Zernike Moment Magnitudes (ZMM) approach for similarity measure. Myanmar nationals have Myanmar Language, religion and culture. The origin of Myanmar Language and writing is searched stone inscriptions is found. Myanmar alphabets are sculptured on stones through five eras. In this paper, we present Zernike Moment Magnitudes (ZMM) approach based on script feature having the objective of classifying ancient era with the uncertainty that may occur in a classification problem. Describing some methods to classify ancient era using Myanmar alphabets sculptured on stones and getting classification methods are based on Zernike moment magnitudes (ZMM) approach. This paper wants to support automatic classification for Myanmar ancient stone inscription character. It's also providing decision support for Myanmar history. We also use image of Myanmar stone script data.
This study indicates the "Influence of TV Dramas on the Dressing Style and Way of Taking of Women in Tehsil Karor Lal Eason District Layyah". In this way data was collected from one hundred women who belong to 16 to 30 years age group and have access to cable network. The present study documented the time spending, watching habits, favorite channels .Analysis show that Indian entertainment channels are most popular among the respondents and they are much impressed from the Indian dramas and they sometimes use Hindi words in their daily life conversation with their family members and relatives. Results further indicated that Indian culture is penetrating in our society due the popularity of Indian dramas and film industry in our society.
The paper focused on the challenges that exist on the process of revenue collection in the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. Like all metropolitan and municipal authorities, the AMA faces several challenges ranging for the efficient provision of service to revenue collection. The study attempt to eliminate or reduce to minimum the challenges in the process of revenue collection, the problems associated with revenue administration, the tax base coverage and challenges in identifying property owners. Other objectives are to proposed and design a database solution for effective management of property ownership and revenue collection and also to propose a network solution for connecting the assembly's and the land sector agencies. The study used the interpretative case study approach to obtain study individuals in their natural settings and also obtain deeper understanding of the event. Data was obtained from written narrative, observation and semi structured interviews of 20 participants. In this study the researcher investigated the challenges associated with the collection of property rate in the AMA. It was discovered that revenue trend has not been stable in revenue collection. It was discovered that the AMA does not have a full or comprehensive register of all taxable activities or levies in their jurisdiction. There exist no system to track invoices and payments. Data on services, facilities, levies etc. are handled manually and consequently subject to fraud, abuse and significant revenue loss. The research therefore recommends ways of minimizing the revenue leakage associated with property rate administration by the AMA; The proposed database system for collecting property rate stores detailed information of individual customer's and their property (land and building), these details would be stored with land or property coordinates from Google map for easy site identification. The system is designed to generate invoices and send it via mail to the appropriate customers and also keep payment records as well as summary reports of all services.
Use of plant based drugs and chemicals for curing various ailments and personal adornment is as old as human civilization. Plants and plant-based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceuticals we use today for our various ailments. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Barringtonia acutangula (Family: Lecythidaceae) and Premna corymbosa (Family: Verbenaceae), two widely distributed shrubs of the Sundarbans mangrove forest by disc diffusion assay. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested against E. coli, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, V. cholerae , S. paratyphi, Proteus spp, S. aureus and S. epidermis using disc diffusion assay where the chloroformic extract of bark of B. acutangula showed excellent performance against E. coli and the zone of inhibition was recorded as 10mm and 13mm for 500µg and 1000µg consistently. The chloroformic extracts of bark of P. corymbosa also showed significant activity against V. cholera, S. dysenteriae and E. coli respectively. In this investigation Kanamycin (30 µg / disc) standard disc were used as the reference.
In a current era, needs of IT resources are common to achieve the target goals. These segments can be a government, research institutes, industry, telecommunication and education. Today technologies are essential tools for any sector to perform daily activities in this competitive world. The businesses must have the ability to exploit the role of these technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT). To use these technologies effectively, proper measures and planning is required. ICT has the potential to enable any sector to perform efficient activities and utilize the resources for better performance. Studies have shown that ICT has the capacity to dramatically improve the results in any sector. In this research we did conduct the analysis and comparison of private and government education sector in Pakistan to study the representation of ICT. The investigation of analysis we did discuss the effectiveness of ICT being utilized education further more we did suggest what measures can be taken to improve the effective role of ICT in the less beneficiary sector. The study established that the availability of ICT resources in schools is still very much wanting and very inadequate for the students to use. Because of the limited number of functional computers and the computer laboratory, accessibility is timetabled. It was found out that training was mainly limited to introduction to basic concepts of information technology, some application programs notably MS office suit and internet; contextual training of students on how to use ICT in learning was not in practice.
The companies become increasingly conscious that their development and their competitiveness pass by the integration of the approach quality within their organization. In this direction, the certification seems a strategic action of the search for excellence. This article aims at studying the impact of certification on the performance of the companies while being based on a case study within the business AMADIR New Company in Agadir.
The present work is a study on the efficiency and performance parameters of straight triangular fins and porous pin fins in natural convection. The study is based on a straight triangular fin and a general porous pin fin profile. To formulate heat transfer equation in straight triangular fin MODIFIED BESSEL'S EQUATION is used. Similarly to formulate heat transfer equation for porous fin ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD (ADM) is used. General differential equations of different orders are used for formulation of both fins. On the basis of efficiency and effectiveness the two fins are compared and an approximate study is done.